are located in the

thyroid gland.

smooth and skeletal muscles.

glomeruli of nephrons.

tubules of nephrons.

Question 2

2 / 2 pts

A surgical individual just arrived on the unit from the postanesthesia care unit. This person’s respirations are 4 per minute and shallow. As the nurse calls for assistance, the person suddenly feels jittery and breathing quickens. Which of the following feedback loops is operating for the nurse in this situation?

The central nervous system stimulates the hypothalamus to synthesize oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone, which are secreted by the posterior pituitary, activating uterine contraction and renal absorption of water.

The central nervous system directly stimulates the adrenal medulla to secrete epinephrine and stimulates hypothalamus-releasing factor, which acts on the anterior pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropic-stimulating hormone (ACTH), stimulating the release of cortisol.

The central nervous system directly stimulates the release of insulin, which reduces blood glucose levels.

The central nervous system stimulates hypothalamus-releasing factor, which acts on the anterior pituitary gland to secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and stimulates the release of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

Question 3

2 / 2 pts

Hormones are effective communicators because they

are regularly synthesized in response to cellular and tissue activities.

increase their secretion in response to rising hormone levels.

are rapidly degraded once they enter the cell.

decrease their secretion in response to rising plasma hormone levels.

Question 4

2 / 2 pts

When insulin binds its receptors on muscle cells, an increase in glucose uptake by the muscle cells is the result. This is an example of a _____ effect by a hormone.

direct

pharmacologic

synergistic

permissive

Question 5

2 / 2 pts

What effect does aldosterone have on fluid and electrolyte imbalances?

It directly increases calcium reabsorption.

It directly increases sodium reabsorption.

It directly increases magnesium reabsorption.

It directly increases water reabsorption.

Question 6

2 / 2 pts

Which hormone is involved in the regulation of serum calcium levels?

Triiodothyronine (T3)

Thyroxine (T4)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Question 7

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following hormones acts on its target cell via a second messenger?

Testosterone

Thyroxine

Estrogen

Angiotensin II

Question 8

2 / 2 pts

What hormone or electrolyte imbalance slows down the rate of secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?

Increased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Decreased serum magnesium levels

Decreased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Increased serum calcium levels

Question 9

2 / 2 pts

A person who has experienced physiologic stresses will have increased levels of which hormone?

Somatostatin

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Alpha endorphin

Thyroid hormones

Question 10

2 / 2 pts

Lipid-soluble hormone receptors are located

on the outer surface of the plasma membrane.

on the inner surface of the plasma membrane.

inside the plasma membrane in the cytoplasm.

inside the mitochondria.

Question 11

2 / 2 pts

What is the target tissue for prolactin-releasing factor (PRF)?

Anterior pituitary

Hypothalamus

Mammary glands

Posterior pituitary

Question 12

2 / 2 pts

Where is oxytocin synthesized?

Posterior pituitary

Paraventricular nuclei

Anterior pituitary

Hypothalamus

Question 13

2 / 2 pts

The level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in Graves disease is usually

high.

low.

normal.

in constant flux.

Question 14

2 / 2 pts

A person has acne, easy bruising, thin extremities, and truncal obesity. These clinical manifestations are indicative of which endocrine disorder?

Diabetes insipidus (DI)

Cushing disease

Hypoaldosteronism

Hyperthyroidism

Question 15

2 / 2 pts

The effects of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) include solute

dilution and water loss.

dilution and water retention.

retention and water retention.

retention and water loss.

Question 16

0 / 2 pts

Polyuria occurs with diabetes mellitus because of

chronic insulin resistance.

the formation of ketones.

an increase in antidiuretic hormone.

an elevation in serum glucose.

Question 17

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following clinical manifestations is not common to both diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNKS)?

Increased serum glucose

Glycosuria

Fluid loss

Kussmaul respirations

Question 18

2 / 2 pts

Diagnosing a thyroid carcinoma is best done with

fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

measurement of serum thyroid levels.

ultrasonography.

radioisotope scanning.

Question 19

2 / 2 pts

A man with a closed head injury has a urine output of 6 to 8 L/day. Electrolytes are within normal limits, but his antidiuretic hormone (ADH) level is low. Although he has had no intake for 4 hours, there is no change in his polyuria. These are indications of

neurogenic diabetes insipidus.

psychogenic polydipsia.

osmotically induced diuresis.

syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).

Question 20

2 / 2 pts

Hyperpituitarism is generally caused by

hypothalamic hyposecretion.

a neurohypophysial tumor.

a pituitary adenoma.

autoimmune disorder of the pituitary.

Question 21

2 / 2 pts

The signs of thyroid crisis resulting from Graves disease include

constipation and lethargy.

bradycardia and bradypnea.

constipation with gastric distention.

hyperthermia and tachycardia.

Question 22

2 / 2 pts

Which disorder is caused by hypersecretion of the growth hormone (GH) in adults?

Cushing syndrome

Myxedema

Acromegaly

Giantism

Question 23

2 / 2 pts

The cause of neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) is related to an organic lesion of the

anterior pituitary.

renal tubules.

thalamus.

posterior pituitary.

Question 24

2 / 2 pts

The most probable cause of low serum calcium following a thyroidectomy is

hypothyroidism caused by lack of thyroid replacement.

hypoparathyroidism caused by surgical injury.

hyperparathyroidism secondary to Graves disease.

myxedema secondary to surgery.

Question 25

2 / 2 pts

What causes the microvascular complications of clients with diabetes mellitus?

The capillaries contain plaques of lipids that obstruct blood flow.

Fibrous plaques form from the proliferation of subendothelial smooth muscle of arteries.

The capillary basement membranes thicken and there is endothelial cell hyperplasia.

There is increased pressure within capillaries as a result of the elevated glucose attracting water.

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