Research Article Critique, Part 2
Occupational Stressors, Stress Perception Levels, and Coping Styles of Medical Surgical RNs: A Generalized Perspective (Wakim, 2014)

Your assigned article for critique is:

Wakim, N. (2014). Occupational stressors, stress perception levels, and coping styles of medical surgical RNs. Journal of Nursing Administration, 44(12), 632-639. doi:10.1097/NNA.0000000000000140



Instructions:  A major skill that is learned in this course is how to critically read and critique nursing research articles.  The purpose for critiquing an article is to critically evaluate the research process followed by the author(s) of the assigned article. This is an information-intensive, time-intensive process that is not learned overnight.   To demonstrate your skill at critiquing an article, you will complete this open-book multiple choice assignment.


Here’s how you should approach completing this week’s assignment to finish critiquing an article:


1.  First, do your assigned reading in Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) and complete the reading worksheets early in the week.  This will introduce you to the critique skills you will need for the week.


2.  Skim the entire instructor assigned research article that has been posted on Blackboard for you so that you will have an idea of what it is about.  Lightly cross out the abstract for the article (you won’t be using it). Then, for this week, re-read carefully from the study design section through the end of the article.


3.  Print this document and find the best answer to each question below based on your Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) assigned reading for the week and what you have read in the instructor assigned research article.


4.  Some of the questions in the critique assignment below will seem unfamiliar to you. Look up key terms from the question in your textbook.  Some examples of these terms might be: power analysis, inter-rater reliability, and generalization. You can also look in Chapter 12 for an example of a critical appraisal (or critique) of a quantitative research article.


5. Once you have completed this assignment “on paper”, go into blackboard and enter your answers by the assignment due date and time listed in the syllabus.  Ignore any wording from Blackboard that indicates that “this is a test” and carefully enter your answers from this document.


6.  You will have two access attempts to record your answers.  This is given to you so that if you encounter technical difficulties on your first attempt, or you would like a second attempt to try to improve your grade, you may do so.  You will not be able to see the questions that you missed when you submit your attempt.  Blackboard will record the highest grade from the two submissions.


If you have questions about this assignment, you can post them to your group discussion board for help.  Please do not post the exact question from the assignment below and ask the group for the answer as this would constitute academic dishonesty.

Questions 1 – 9: Sample.  (For help with these questions, refer to chapters:  9 & 12)


1.  What sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?


a.   Simple random sampling


b.   Systematic sampling


c.   Convenience sampling


d.   Network sampling




2.  According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), what are the potential biases of this sampling method?


a.   This is a strong probability sampling method with very little potential for bias


b.   This method is used when an ordered list of all members of the population are available, and provides a random but not equal chance for inclusion in the study.


c.   This method provides little opportunity to control for bias because subjects are included in the study merely because they happen to be in the right place at the right time.


d.   This method is specific to the individuals who were recruited and the information gained cannot be generalized to others who don’t share these types of experiences.


e.   None of the above biases best describe the sampling method chosen by the author.




3.  What was the final sample size reported by the authors for this study?


a.  200 participants


b.  84 participants


c.   159 participants


d.   161 participants




4.  Was a power analysis conducted?  If so, which statement best describes the results of the power analysis?


a.    The authors mention that an a priori power analysis was conducted, and 200 subjects were


determined to be needed for the study.


b.   The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted using four predictors and 1-way ANOVA using three independent groups for a needed sample size of 159.


c.   The authors do not report that a power analysis was conducted.




5.  Which of these statements would be considered an inclusion criterion for the sample in the research article?


a.   English-speaking


b.   Have at least two years of experience as a nurse


c.   Work on a Medical Surgical unit


d.   Be a member of the Medical Surgical Nurses Association






6.  Which of these statements would be considered to be exclusion criterion specifically identified by the author for the sample in the research article?


a.  The exclusion criteria were explained verbally during recruitment.


b.  History of depression/ mental health issue.


c.   Report of no stress related problems by the participant.


d.  Participants only worked on the night shift.




7.  What is the refusal rate for this study? (Hint: see page 253 in your text)


a.   161/200 X 100% = 80%


b.   84/159 X 100% = 53%


c.   unknown / cannot be calculated.


d.   39/200 x 100% = 19.5%




8.  Which of the following would be accurate for the attrition rate for this study?


a.   161/200  X 100% = 80%


b.   39/200 X 100% = 20%


c.   84/159 X 100% = 53%


d.   0%




9.   What was the setting for this research study?  Briefly describe the setting and indicate whether it was appropriate for conducting this study.


a.   The setting for this study was a partially controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.


b.   The setting for this study was not well described by the authors and therefore not appropriate for


conducting this study.


c.   The setting for this study was a highly controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.


d.   The setting for this study was a natural or field setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.




Question 10 – 14: Measurement Methods.  (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12.)


10.  Which ones of these questionnaires, scales, or physiologic measures is used in this research study?


(Select all that apply).


a.   The Ways of Coping Questionaire (WAYS)


b.  The Nursing Stress Scale (NSS)


c.   The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)


d.   The Quality of Life Scale (QOLS)




11.  How do the authors describe the reliability of the Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) in previous studies?


a.   Two follow-up emails were sent to potential participants.


b.   they compared the odd and even questions on the test to determine their equivalence.


c.   a team of staff nurses was trained by the primary investigator to administer the questionnaire.


d.   they tested a group of subjects twice using the same questionnaire (test-retest reliability).


e. they computed a Cronbach’s alpha on the Nurse Stress Scale that was administered to this group of subjects.




12. How do the authors describe the validity of The Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WAYS).


a.    discriminant validity demonstrated that each subscale measured the same constructs.


b.   evidence of validity from contrasting groups because they gave it to spouses of MS nurses.


c.   no was no mention of determining the validity of WAYS questionnaire.


d.   The authors had experience with administering this questionnaire.




13.   What types of questionnaires or surveys were used in this research study?  (Select all that apply.)


a.  The authors developed the Professional Quality of Life Scale.


b.  Interviews were reportedly used, but the authors do not explain what was included in them.


c.  The authors developed their own questions to ask about demographic information.


d.   The authors report adding a few of their own questions at the end of the demographic questionnaire.


e.   This study did not use any questionnaires or surveys.


f.    The authors used previously developed questionnaires or surveys to measure the study






14.   Were any physiological measurements collected from the subjects for the purpose of this study?


a.   Yes


b.   No




Question 15- 16: Data Collection. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12)




15. Which one of the following best describes the data collection process used in this study?


a.   questionnaires / surveys were completed via the telephone.


b.   participants were given the questionnaires on enrollment in the study and asked to drop the sealed envelope in a locked box at the nurse’s station.


c.   questionnaires / surveys were mailed to the prospective participants and returned in a self-


addressed stamped envelope.


d.   nurse researchers interviewed the study participants in a focus group.




16.  If there were more than one data collector for the study, would an estimation of inter-rater reliability be an important concept for the authors to report on for this study?


a.   yes, and the authors reported their efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.


b.   yes, but the authors do not discuss any efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.


c.   no, the issue of inter-rater reliability does not apply here.




Question 17 – 19:  Data Analysis. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)


17.  What descriptive statistics are used in this study?  (Select all that apply).


a.   mean


b.   median


c.   mode


d.   standard deviation


e.   z-scores


f.   percentage distributions




18.  What inferential statistics were used to examine the data obtained from the subjects?  (Select all that apply)


a.   Bivariate correlational analysis


b.   Factor Analysis


c.    t-Test


d.   Chi-Square




f.   ANOVA


g.   regression analysis


h.   None of the above inferential statistics were used in this study.




19.  What is the level of significance (alpha) set at for this study?


a.   .05 or 5%


b.   .10 or 90%


c    .01 or 1%


d.   an alpha level or level of significance chosen by the authors was not specifically mentioned in the text


of the article.




Question 20-25: Researcher’s Interpretation of the Findings. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)




20.  There are several statistically significant findings in this study. Which of these statements from the article would be considered a significant and predicted result(select all that apply)


a.   As MS nurses’ perceptions of their stress increases, their use of ways to cope increases (r = .357, P<.00)


b.   Younger nurses have lower levels of perceived stress, per post hoc Tukey analysis.


c.   Baby boomers tend to report higher use of self-controlling behaviors than Gen X and Gen Y nurses when dealing with occupational stressors.


d.  The stress perception level is thus determined by the type of occupational stressor that the nurse is


exposed to.


21.  Which of these statements from the article would be considered a non-significant result(Select all that apply)


a.   The older the nurse, the higher the level of stress.


b.   There was no difference between the scores on ways of coping related to age cohorts (F2158 = 1.12, P=.33)


c.   Age, years of experience, and educational levels are not significant factors in levels of perceived stress among MS nurses.


              d.   Baby boomers tend to report higher use of self-controlling behaviors than Gen X and Gen Y nurses


when dealing with occupational stressors.






22.  Which one of these statements from the article would be considered clinically important?


a.    According to this study results, a high level of occupational stress is not a known factor for nursing


turnover in MS nurses.


b.   Younger nurses have better coping skills to combat perceived stress compared to more


experienced nurses.


c.   Baby boomers reported higher use of self-controlling behaviors when dealing with occupational


stressors compared with Gen X and Gen Y.


d.   Six participants were removed from the study due to incomplete surveys.




23.  Which statements below implied from the article would be considered a limitation of the study? (Select all that apply)


a.   The researchers utilized a qualitative method in the research design.


b.   Lack of standardization of the conditions of administering the instruments.


c.   A small sample size with a low response rate.


d.   A measure of social desirability in giving responses as the participants worked with the researcher.




24.  Which one of these statements would be considered a statement regarding generalization of these results?


a.   The results indicated that there were high levels of perceived stress in this group of MS nurses and can be generalized to all MS nurses in the United States.


b.   The survey was mailed only to MS nurses who were members of the Medical Surgical Nurses Association (MSNA).


c.     A convenience sample of MS nurses decreases generalizability.


d.    The use of a power analysis influenced the generalization of the results to all MS nurses.





25.  Which one of these statements from the article would be considered a recommendation for future studies?  (Select al that apply.)


a.   Future development of programs to help relieve the occupational stress in MS nurses.


              b.   Research to discover why older nurses have a higher perceived stress compared to younger nurses.


c.   Sufficiently educating nursing leaders in generational differences.


d.   Identification of occupational stressors, perceived stress, and coping styles among generational cohorts.


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