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Kano, TRIZ, 6-3-5 & TRIZ

Slide 2

Why listen to the Voice of the Customer?

When to listen to Voice of the Customer

Slide 3

• Product / Service Idea

• Size of market• Market characteristics• Key buying factors

• Product or service technical features

• Verify customers• Verify customer wants, needs and

expectations• Prioritising these

• Translate wants/needs into Functional Requirements

• Translate functional requirements into design parameters and process variables

Market research

Market potential



Capturing/Verifying Voice of theCustomer

Designing new product / process to meet customer requirements



Customer research

Idea generation

Slide 4

What is Voice of the Customer?

• Customer Wants

• Customer Needs

• Customer Demands

• Customer Requirements

• Customer Wishes

• Customer Delighters

• Customer Expectations

• Customer Critical to Satisfaction Items (CTSs)

Like any game, if you know the rules better than your competitor, you have an advantage!

Does SKF know our customers and potential customers better than our competition?

Whatever it is that will make customers come to you. That is what customer likes,

that is what you need to find out, that is Voice of the Customer!

Slide 5

• Whose needs specifically must be met for this product or process or service

to be successful?

• Are all customers equally important?

• Are there other potential key customers?

• Decision makers

• Administrators

• End users

• Maintenance

Protect SKF against competing customers

Identify customers






Your organisation




Slide 6

Who is the customer?

• If you sell Barbies to “Toys‘R’Us”, who’s the Customer? • Toys‘R’Us?

• The mother who bought it?

• The child that plays with it?

• Since Toys‘R’Us is your direct customer do the others matter?

Hospital A 48.6%

Hospital B 40.9%

Be careful

Cancer survival rates

Total Kidney Liver

Hospital A 48.6% 36.7% 50.0%

Hospital B 40.9% 40.0% 54.0%

Cancer survival rates

Simpson’s paradox

Total Kidney Liver

Hospital A 48.6% 36.7% 50.0%

Hospital B 40.9% 40.0% 54.0%

Total Kidney Liver

Hospital A 272 560 22 60 250 500

Hospital B 327 800 300 750 27 50



Slide 10

Sex discrimination at Berkeley

• The University of Berkeley some years back (1973) found evidence that there was sex discrimination in admission to graduate school.

• It was observed that (1) A smaller percentage of women were admitted to graduate school than men.

• But when the University looked more closely at the evidence, they also found that:

(2) In each department, the percentage of women admitted is the same as the percentage of men.

• How can (1) and (2) both be true?

• The answer is that this is an instance of Simpson’s paradox. But what does that mean?

Actual lawsuit

Slide 11

Simpson’s paradox

Applicants Admitted

Men 8442 44%

Women 4321 35%

Men Women

Major Applicants Admitted Applicants Admitted

A 825 62% 108 82%

B 560 63% 25 68%

C 325 37% 593 34%

D 417 33% 375 35%

E 191 28% 393 24%

F 272 6% 341 7%


Slide 13

Why design a survey

• It is difficult to use surveys

• Without a design there is a high probability of obtaining misleading information

• Things that go wrong with surveys:• The questions are not clear

• The respondent loses interest

• The results are in a form that is difficult to analyse

• Sample does not represent population

• Respondents do not represent the sample

Satisfaction as a function of need fulfilment

Slide 14

(Broken Process)(Product Failure)






r S





Fulfilment Fulfilled Condition


(Perfect Process)(Product Performs)

y-axis is Customer Satisfaction

x-axis is the degree to which the desired service

or product is fulfilled

Three dimensions of customer needs

Slide 15

(Broken Process)(Product Failure)






r S





Fulfilment Fulfilled Condition


(Perfect Process)(Product Performs)



Must-BeBasic Function

Slide 16

Kano questionnaire definitions

• Requirement type• Must-be

• One-Dimensional

• Delighters

• Indifferent

• Reverse, Questionable

• Definition• If the product does not have this no one will

be interested in it.

• The more you provide this function the more satisfied the customer will be.

• The customer is happy when it is there but will not complain if it is not there.

• The customer does not care about this feature.

• Poor question wording, or under certain circumstances, this particular function has a negative interaction with other important functions and we never really understood what we were talking about.

Slide 17

Questionnaire development• Develop a pair of questions for each potential


• Two part questions

• How do you feel if the feature (or function) is present in the product/service?

• How do you feel if the feature (or function) is NOT present in the product/service?

• Multiple choice answer1. I like it that way2. It must be that way3. I am neutral4. I can live with it that way5. I dislike it that way



Kano questionnaire example

How do you feel if your radio has


1. I like it that way

2. It must be that way

3. I am neutral

4. I can live with it that way

5. I dislike it that way

How do you feel if your radio

does not have Bluetooth?

1. I like it that way

2. It must be that way

3. I am neutral

4. I can live with it that way

5. I dislike it that way

Dysfunctional form of the Question

Functional form of the Question

Slide 19

LegendD: Delighter I : IndifferentM: Must-be R: ReverseO: One-dimensional Q: Questionable result

Customer DysfunctionalRequirements 1. Like 2. Must-Be 3. Neutral 4. Live With 5. Dislike

Functional Q D D D OR I I I MR I I I MR I I I M

1. Like2. Must-Be3. Neutral4. Live With5. Dislike R R R R Q

Kano evaluation table

Slide 20

Kano evaluation table example

1. Collect and tally each of the paired customer responses into appropriate location in Evaluation Table.

2. Highest number wins.

3. Ties normally indicate that additional information is required. You may be dealing with 2 market segments, or you may need to ask questions about more detailed customer requirements.

4. Large number of Q’s indicates that questions should be temporarily deleted until confusion can be resolved.

5. Large number of R’s indicates marketplace thoughts are opposite of the creators.

Question M O D I R Q Total Grade1 1 21 1 23 O2 22 1 23 M3 5 13 5 23 D4 1 4 6 11 1 23 I5 9 6 1 6 1 23 M6 2 7 10 3 1 23 I

Slide 21

Graphical approach

1. Calculate Dissatisfaction and Satisfaction Indices:

2. Plot DI vs. SI (Kano diagram)











Delighters gone wrong

• The Cadillac Fleetwood V8-6-4• Cylinder deactivation to keep up with the CAFE standards

• Jerky ride

• Stalled often

• Toyota Auto Park

Slide 22

Slide 23

Web based survey case study

• US Automotive consumers given J.D. Power customer satisfaction survey

• Survey has large impact on vehicle sales

• Survey has no value for diagnosing problems and improving

• Question type

• How satisfied are you with your radio?

• How satisfied are you with your seats?

• Why don’t you like the radio?

• What can I change to make you like it?

Slide 24

Customer satisfaction survey

• 181,000 July and August 2000 buyers & lessees were requested to participate at 3-4 months service

• 80 Vehicle lines included in survey

• 10,758 Surveys were completed

Slide 25

Customer satisfaction survey

• How satisfied are you with your radio?• Satisfaction scale is 1 to 7

• If user answers 1, 2 or 3 they are given drill down questions• Select one or more of the following radio problems

• Reception

• Volume

• Clarity

• Controls

• Etc.

• Drill down continues

• Open ended comments are allowed

• With no incentives the average response time was 45 minutes

Customer satisfaction surveyCustomer Insight Diagnostic Survey• #1 Instrument Panel complaint was customer wants an ashtray &

• lighter

• Make & Model and sample comments specifically related to not

• including ashtray & lighter as standard feature

• – Honda Civic (x8) “It costs extra for an ashtray and a cigarette lighter. I think that’s ridiculous”

• – Saturn SL2 (x2) “There is no ashtray or any receptacle for small trash items such as gum wrappers”

• – Toyota Avalon “Centre console needs wire slot for power plug to close lid”

• – Saturn SC“No ashtray or lighter”

• – Mercury Mystique “No ashtray”

• – Mazda 626 (x2) “Did not come standard with ashtray”

• – Honda Accord “No ashtrays”

• – Pontiac Bonneville “Need a car phone jack”

• – Cadillac Seville (x3) “Front ashtray/lighter not standard but should be in this class of car”

• – Mercury Villager “No ashtray”

• – Chrysler T&C “What ashtray”

• – Honda CRV “No cigarette lighter!”

Slide 26

Slide 27


• Planning and design of the survey is important to obtain meaningful results.

• Sample selection must ensure the population is adequately represented.

• Wording and order of questions and answer choices should be thought out to increase response rate and accuracy.

• The analysis strategy must be considered upfront in the survey design.

• If the survey is designed well, conducting the survey and analysing the results will be easy.

Triz & 6-3-5


• Theory of inventive problem solving

• Creativity by resolving conflicts

• Based on patent review


Slide 29

Brainwriting 6-3-5

• Provides a basic worksheet for team members to record their ideas.

• Leverages synergies between team members to develop the ideas that feed off of each other.

• Worksheet helps to ensure repeatable results.

• Process:• Assembly a team (six is an ideal number) and state the problem statement• Have each of the six people write down (3) ideas on their individual worksheet within a five

minute time frame• Write each idea as concise but in a complete sentence (one idea per box)

• At the end of the five minutes, everyone passes their individual worksheet to the person on their left

• The next person reads the ideas written by the person before them and then is given five more minutes to think of another (3) ideas – these new ideas can be spurred on by the previous ideas list

• The process is repeated until each of the six people contribute to each sheet

Slide 30

Brainwriting 6-3-5

Problem Statement:

Person Idea 1 Idea 2 Idea 3







Pugh’s Concept Selection

Pugh’s method

• Creativity – a final opportunity to be creative• Structured method to evaluate multiple alternatives in the concept development phase

• Capture best elements of concepts to synthesise better concepts

• Proactive team approach that creates change improvements in development versus implementation process

• Increase team’s understanding of design capability

• Optimise development time and costs

Team participants using this process often:• To achieve greater insight and awareness of possible solutions by

building on each others ideas• To find that the method stimulates generation of new and better


Slide 33

Pugh’s concept selection: Process flow

Slide 34

Rate concept alternatives

Create hybrid concepts

Select reference concept

Create concept screening matrix



Concept Selection

Number of Concepts

Choose criteria

• List requirements against which the concepts will be evaluated

• Final list should be unambiguous and must be agreed by the full team

• Target number of criteria is about 10. If you have more, focus on most important requirements

• Ideally, use the functional and attribute requirements from QFD HOQ #1

Slide 35

Requirements Datum 1 2 3 4

Total +Total -Total S’s



Functional & Attribute

Characteristics (HOW’s)

Form screening matrix

Slide 36

Problems (requirements) on left vertical axis

Concepts across the top horizontal

A + – + +

B + – + +

C – + – –


A. Team discusses criteria (requirements or metrics) — “will

they distinguish one concept for another?”

B. Attach individual solution concepts across the top.

Example: Pugh concepts for car horn

Slide 37

Example: Pugh matrix for car horn

Slide 38

How it Works

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  2. Fіll іn yоur paper’s іnfоrmatіоn and clіck “PRІCE CALCULATІОN” at the bоttоm tо calculate yоur оrder prіce.
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Nоte, оnce lоgged іntо yоur accоunt; yоu can clіck оn the “Pendіng” buttоn at the left sіdebar tо navіgate, make changes, make payments, add іnstructіоns оr uplоad fіles fоr the оrder created. e.g., оnce lоgged іn, clіck оn “Pendіng” and a “pay” оptіоn wіll appear оn the far rіght оf the оrder yоu created, clіck оn pay then clіck оn the “Checkоut” оptіоn at the next page that appears, and yоu wіll be able tо cоmplete the payment.

Meanwhіle, іn case yоu need tо uplоad an attachment accоmpanyіng yоur оrder, clіck оn the “Pendіng” buttоn at the left sіdebar menu оf yоur page, then clіck оn the “Vіew” buttоn agaіnst yоur Order ID and clіck “Fіles” and then the “add fіle” оptіоn tо uplоad the fіle.

Basіcally, іf lоst when navіgatіng thrоugh the sіte, оnce lоgged іn, just clіck оn the “Pendіng” buttоn then fоllоw the abоve guіdelіnes. оtherwіse, cоntact suppоrt thrоugh оur chat at the bоttоm rіght cоrner


Payment Prоcess

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  1. Pay wіth my PayPal accоunt‘– select thіs оptіоn іf yоu have a PayPal accоunt.
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