Select Page
Your Perfect Assignment is Just a Click Away
We Write Custom Academic Papers

100% Original, Plagiarism Free, Customized to your instructions!

glass
pen
clip
papers
heaphones

JournalofVocationalBehavior.pdf

JournalofVocationalBehavior.pdf

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

Available online 20 April 20210001-8791/© 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Life stage, lifespan, and life course perspectives on vocational behavior and development: A theoretical framework, review, and research agenda

Hannes Zacher a, *, Ariane Froidevaux b

a Institute of Psychology – Wilhelm Wundt, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany b Department of Management, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, United States

A R T I C L E I N F O

Keywords: Aging Career development Life stage Life course Lifespan

A B S T R A C T

This article for the 50th anniversary issue of the Journal of Vocational Behavior theoretically in-tegrates, reviews, and critically discusses research that investigates vocational behavior and development based on life stage, lifespan, and life course perspectives. First, we describe key tenets of these perspectives and associated theories of vocational behavior and development. Second, we present a theoretical framework that integrates the lifespan and life course per-spectives by addressing (a) relationships between age and important work and career outcomes (i. e., career decisions and success, job search and turnover, work motivation and behavior, atti-tudes, occupational health and well-being), (b) age-related person and contextual mechanisms of these relationships, and (c) interactive effects of age with person characteristics, contextual characteristics, and/or work and career outcomes. Third, based on the theoretical framework, we summarize cumulative empirical evidence for these age-related associations and effects for the various work and career outcomes. Moreover, we review conceptual and empirical articles on aging, life stage, lifespan, and life course development published in the Journal of Vocational Behavior over the past 50 years. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of theoretical implications and directions for future research that adopts an integrated lifespan and life course perspective on vocational behavior and development.

1. Introduction

The notions of aging and career both involve long-term temporal processes and, therefore, it is not surprising that scholars have frequently adopted life stage and lifespan perspectives to study vocational behavior and development (Fasbender & Deller, 2017; Nagy, Froidevaux, & Hirschi, 2019). Life stage theories divide lives and careers into several discrete, age-related, and normative stages, such as “exploration,” “establishment,” and “decline” (e.g., Levinson, 1986; Super, 1953). Over the past three decades, however, these theories have been largely superseded by vocational theories based more or less explicitly on the lifespan perspective (e.g., De Vos, Van der Heijden, & Akkermans, 2020; Savickas et al., 2009). The lifespan perspective originates from the field of developmental psy-chology and conceives individual development (ontogenesis) as a lifelong, continuous, and multidirectional process that is influenced by the interplay of biological maturation, contextual opportunities and constraints, and action regulation (Baltes, 1987).

* Corresponding author at: Institute of Psychology – Wilhelm Wundt, Leipzig University, Neumarkt 9-19, 04109 Leipzig, Germany. E-mail address: hannes.zacher@uni-leipzig.de (H. Zacher).

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Vocational Behavior

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jvb

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2020.103476 Received 11 December 2019; Received in revised form 29 May 2020; Accepted 29 July 2020

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

2

However, despite repeated calls to better integrate research on vocational behavior and development with the lifespan perspective (e.g., Hansson, DeKoekkoek, Neece, & Patterson, 1997; Savickas, 2001), the literature is limited in three important ways. First, numerous studies have investigated relationships between age and various work and career outcomes, whereas only few studies have systematically examined mechanisms and boundary conditions of these relationships (Zacher, 2015). A potential reason for this may be that research on the role of age for vocational behavior and development is lacking an integrative theoretical framework. Second, research on vocational behavior and development has largely neglected the broader context in which modern careers unfold, including institutional structures, organizational policies and practices, and social roles (Tomlinson, Baird, Berg, & Cooper, 2018). The interplay between these contextual characteristics and agency (i.e., “the human capability to exert influence over one’s actions and environ-ment;” Hirst, Yeo, Celestine, Lin, & Richardson, 2020, p. 377) is emphasized by the life course perspective, which originated from the field of sociology (Elder, 1975) and developed in parallel to the lifespan perspective (Mayer, 2003). While the potential importance of both lifespan and life course perspectives for the study of careers has been acknowledged (Savickas, 2002), these perspectives remain largely disintegrated, thus preventing transdisciplinary research on vocational behavior and development. Third, existing vocational theories are often only loosely based on the meta-theoretical lifespan and life course perspectives and, as such, have not integrated more specific theories and constructs that emerged from these perspectives and are frequently employed in developmental psychology (e.g., the model of selection, optimization, and compensation; Baltes & Baltes, 1990) and sociology (e.g., the social construction and sustainment of gender norms; Moen & Sweet, 2004). This is unfortunate, because incorporating these theories and constructs could help to significantly advance our understanding of age-related differences and changes in experiences, behavior, and outcomes in contemporary workplaces and careers (Rudolph, 2016; Tomlinson et al., 2018).

To address the limitations, the goals of this article for the 50th anniversary issue of the Journal of Vocational Behavior (JVB) are threefold. First, we describe the key tenets of the life stage, lifespan, and life course perspectives, as well as vocational theories more or less explicitly based upon them. We further propose an integrative theoretical framework that incorporates central ideas of the lifespan and life course perspectives to review and guide research on the role of age and aging in vocational behavior and development (n.b. we did not integrate the life stage perspective because it was superseded by the lifespan perspective). The framework focuses on age- related differences or changes in important work and career outcomes, as well as various age-related person (e.g., knowledge, skills, abilities, motives) and contextual characteristics (e.g., job demands, social roles, organizational policies, labor laws, culture) that might explain the effects of age and/or interact with age in predicting work and career outcomes. Second, based on our theoretical framework, we summarize cumulative empirical evidence for age-related associations and effects for various work and career out-comes (i.e., career decisions and success, job search and turnover, work motivation and behavior, work and career attitudes, occu-pational health and well-being). In addition, we review all conceptual and empirical articles on age, aging, as well as life stage, lifespan, and life course development published in JVB over the past five decades. Third, based upon the literature review, we outline an agenda for future research on age in vocational behavior and development that draws on key aspects of both lifespan and life course perspectives as well as the integrative theoretical framework.

The theoretical framework, literature review, and future research agenda presented in this article contribute to theory develop-ment, future research, and practice in several ways. We develop suggestions on how existing vocational theories on career develop-ment could be enriched by integrating more specific ideas and constructs from lifespan and life course perspectives. Moreover, the integration of key aspects of the lifespan and life course perspectives within the theoretical framework and the identification of corresponding gaps in the empirical literature can guide more targeted and comprehensive research efforts to better understand the interplay of age, person, and contextual characteristics in predicting important work and career outcomes. For counseling and organizational practitioners interested in supporting individuals at various points in their careers, our literature review provides an overview of existing cumulative evidence regarding the role of age and aging in vocational behavior and development.

With this article, we build on and extend previous reviews on the role of age and aging, as well as the life stage, lifespan, and life course perspectives for vocational behavior and development published in JVB and other outlets (for recent examples, see Hertel & Zacher, 2018; Tomlinson et al., 2018; Truxillo, Cadiz, & Hammer, 2015). Over the 50-year history of JVB, several articles have highlighted the importance of these perspectives. A review for the 20th anniversary issue of JVB focused on the topic of demographic changes and vocational behavior, including workers’ mid- and late-career experiences (e.g., transition, age discrimination; London & Greller, 1991). Another review published one year later also discussed lifespan perspectives on career behavior, noting that researchers had neglected studying career behavior in mid- and later adulthood (Swanson, 1992). In 1997, a review article focused on research on successful aging in the workplace (Hansson et al., 1997). The authors covered various age-related topics, including job performance, occupational well-being, health and safety, careers and retirement, gender, and age discrimination. A review for the 30th anniversary issue of JVB identified longitudinal research on work adjustment across the lifespan as a major opportunity for future research (Betz, 2001). In the same issue, Vondracek (2001) proposed that vocational psychology, to realize its potential in a changing world of work, “… must become a science and profession that can speak authoritatively on all substantive questions dealing with the vocational development of children, adolescents, and adults” (p. 252). Subsequent reviews and editorials in JVB have echoed this sentiment, highlighting the fundamental importance of the lifespan and life course perspectives to research on work and careers (Savickas, 2002; Vondracek & Hartung, 2002; Vondracek & Porfeli, 2002). Finally, a review article focused on vocational development (e.g., career exploration, awareness, expectations, interests, adaptability) during early-to-late childhood and its links with development in later life (Hartung, Porfeli, & Vondracek, 2005).

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

3

2. Theoretical background

2.1. Life stage, lifespan, and life course perspectives

The life stage perspective and associated theoretical models have a long tradition in the fields of gerontology and developmental psychology (Erikson, 1950; Levinson, 1986), and they have had a significant impact on vocational theories developed before the 1990s (see also Nagy et al., 2019). Life stage models typically divide the human lifespan into several discrete and normative stages with associated psychosocial tasks that have to be addressed to progress in one’s development. For instance, Erikson (1950) suggested that adolescence (i.e., 12 to 18 years) is characterized by a psychosocial conflict between identity vs. role confusion, whereas middle age (i. e., 40 to 65 years) entails a conflict between generativity vs. stagnation.

While many of the themes and constructs of the life stage perspective (e.g., generativity) have not been invalidated, at the end of the 20th century it was superseded by the lifespan perspective, which does not postulate discrete stages and conceives development as continuous and more flexible. In his seminal articles, Baltes (1987; Baltes, Reese, & Lipsitt, 1980) outlined a set of meta-theoretical propositions about the nature of lifespan development, which strongly influence contemporary research on work and aging (see Zacher, Rudolph, & Baltes, 2019): (1) development is a lifelong process and no age period is superior to others; (2) development is multidirectional within and across domains of functioning; (3) development always involves the joint occurrence of gains and losses; (4) development is modifiable within persons (i.e., plasticity); (5) development is historically, culturally, and socially embedded; (6) development depends on the interplay of normative age-graded, normative history-graded, and non-normative influences; and (7) development should be studied from multiple scientific perspectives. In sum, the lifespan perspective focuses on individual devel-opment as a process of adaptation to growth, decline, and maintenance in psychological experience and functioning (Baltes, 1997).

Based on the broader lifespan perspective, several specific lifespan theories have been developed that are often used in research on work and aging (for an in-depth review, see Rudolph, 2016). The model of selection, optimization, and compensation proposes that individuals adapt to functional losses and proactively influence their development by changing their goals, increasing their in-vestments into goal pursuit, and using alternative goal-relevant means (Baltes & Baltes, 1990). Similarly, the model of assimilative and accommodative coping suggests that to age successfully, individuals have to tenaciously pursue and flexibly adjust their goals (Brandtstädter & Renner, 1990). Lifespan theories have also been developed to understand age-related changes in fluid and crystal-lized cognitive abilities, personality adjustment and growth (Baltes, Lindenberger, & Staudinger, 2006; Baltes, Staudinger, & Lin-denberger, 1999), and the prioritization of positive emotional experiences and meaningful social goals with increasing age (socioemotional selectivity theory; Carstensen, Isaacowitz, & Charles, 1999; strength and vulnerability integration theory; Charles, 2010). Finally, the motivational theory of lifespan development (similar to its predecessor, the lifespan theory of control; Heckhausen & Schulz, 1995) suggests that successful aging requires the optimal use of primary control strategies (i.e., proactively changing the environment) and secondary control strategies (i.e., adapting the self to the environment; Heckhausen, Wrosch, & Schulz, 2010).

The life course perspective developed in parallel to the lifespan perspective primarily in the field of sociology (Elder, 1975; Mayer, 2009; Settersten & Mayer, 1997). Whereas the lifespan perspective, consistent with its origins in psychology, focuses mainly on the individual, the life course perspective places a stronger emphasis on the broader context in which the development of individuals and

Fig. 1. Person and contextual characteristics relevant to work and careers and normative age-related changes in these characteristics.

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

4

groups is embedded. According to Mayer (2003), the life course perspective aims to understand three key mechanisms that shape biographical patterns: (1) Societal subsystems, structures, and institutions (e.g., families, schools, organizations, occupational struc-ture, labor law, public welfare, historical period) that select groups of individuals into developmental pathways; (2) prior life histories of individuals and groups (e.g., work experiences, background of poverty, accumulated resources); and (3) social roles (e.g., based on traditional gender norms) and social groups (e.g., based on socioeconomic status). The life course perspective examines how these factors lead to differences in role entries, trajectories, and exits over time between men and women, social classes, countries, and historical periods. It further proposes that, by constructing their lives, individuals reproduce social structures—but they can also change these structures collectively by creating new institutions (Mayer, 2003).

More specific life course concepts include agency (i.e., individuals’ decisions and actions to shape their development within given structural opportunities and constraints); “linked lives” and social pathways (i.e., interpersonal relationships and membership in social groups influence life choices and outcomes); the individual and collective construction of meaning through social identities and shared values; and multiple layers of context, including demographic, economic, technological, community, and organizational ecologies (Moen & Sweet, 2004). In sum, the life course perspective suggests that individual and collective development results from the interplay between social structure and agency, and places a stronger focus on the former than the latter.

Based on the lifespan and life course perspectives and associated research (e.g., Rudolph & Zacher, 2019; Settersten, 2017), Fig. 1

Table 1 Theories of vocational behavior and development based on life stage, lifespan and life course perspectives.

Theory Developmental perspective(s)

Theoretical background and assumptions Key references

Conception of adult development

Life stage “The life structure develops through a relatively orderly sequence of age-linked periods during the adult years” (Levinson, 1986, p. 7). Nine developmental “structure-building” and “structure-changing” periods, ranging from the “early adult transition” (17–22 years) to the “late adult transition” (60–65 years).

Levinson, Darrow, Klein, Levinson, and McKee (1978); Levinson (1986)

Life-span, life-space approach to career development

Life stage The theory examines career choice and development as (a) movement over time through developmental stages associated with developmental tasks (i.e., growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, disengagement), (b) arrangement of psychosocial roles (e.g., student, worker, homemaker), and (c) implementation of the self-concept in different roles.

Super (1953); Super (1980)

Career development framework

Life stage The theory focuses on salespersons and assumes that three distinct career stages (i.e., establishment, advancement, maturity) impact on performance, satisfaction, and involvement via motivational characteristics (e.g., expectancies), skills and aptitudes, as well as role perceptions (e.g., conflict).

Cron (1984)

Boundaryless career Lifespan The theory emphasizes physical and psychological mobility of individuals as “free agents” independent of traditional organizational career arrangements, including a focus on external networks, work- nonwork balance, and subjective career success.

Arthur and Rousseau (1996); Sullivan and Arthur (2006)

Protean career Lifespan The theory emphasizes the importance of individual proactivity, values, and self-directedness for career decisions and focuses on subjective career success and the meta-competencies of identity and adaptability.

Hall and Moss (1998); Hall (2004)

Kaleidoscope career Lifespan and life course

The theory emphasizes the relational nature of women’s career decisions and suggests that women reject “the concept of a linear career progression, preferring instead to create non-traditional, self- crafted careers that suit their objectives, needs and life criteria” ( Mainiero & Sullivan, 2005, p. 109)

Mainiero and Sullivan (2005)

Life design paradigm for career construction

Lifespan and life course

The paradigm adopts a life-long, holistic, contextual, and preventive approach. Consistent with social constructionism, it emphasizes contextual possibilities, dynamic processes, non-linear progression, multiple realities/perspectives, and personal patterns.

Savickas et al. (2009)

Sustainable careers Lifespan and life course

“Sequences of career experiences reflected through a variety of patterns of continuity over time, thereby crossing several social spaces, characterized by individual agency, herewith providing meaning to the individual” (Van der Heijden & De Vos, 2015, p. 7).

Van der Heijden and De Vos (2015); De Vos et al. (2020)

Frayed careers Life course The theory emphasizes dynamic rhythms in careers, as well as the gendered, age-specific, and class-related representation and construction of careers. It criticizes the normative linearity and upward direction in other career theories.

Sabelis and Schilling (2013)

Flexible careers across the life course

Life course A multilevel theory of career development that integrates the institutional environment (e.g., education and training systems, welfare regimes, worker voice, working time and leave regulations, retirement systems), organizational dynamics (e.g., flexible work policies, organizational practices and culture, managerial agency), and individual career decisions across multiple life course stages and transitions (e.g., school-to-work, family and care, retirement).

Moen and Sweet (2004); Tomlinson et al. (2018)

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

5

illustrates various important person and contextual characteristics and typical (i.e., average or normative) age-related changes in the characteristics. Importantly, labels such as “early adulthood” and corresponding age ranges are provided in the figure for descriptive purposes only. While these life stage conventions are still often used in the literature, consistent with the lifespan perspective, it is preferable to conceptualize and operationalize age as a continuous variable instead of splitting it into arbitrary age categories (Bohlmann, Rudolph, & Zacher, 2018). The same applies to the common, yet problematic practice of grouping multiple birth years into “generations” (Rudolph & Zacher, 2017). There are several theoretical (e.g., “fuzzy boundaries,” ecological fallacy), methodological (e.g., reduced statistical power, confounding with age and period effects), and practical reasons (e.g., age-based discrimination, generationalism) to avoid such categories (Rudolph, Rauvola, Costanza, & Zacher, 2020). Thus, we use labels such as “younger,” “middle-aged,” and “older employees” in a relative and descriptive sense only, and we avoid using generational labels in this article.

2.2. Vocational theories based on life stage, lifespan, and life course perspectives

Table 1 presents an overview of the theoretical background and key assumptions of prominent vocational behavior and devel-opment theories based on the life stage, lifespan, and life course perspectives. First, three early vocational theories based on the life stage perspective include Levinson’s (1986) conception of adult development, Super’s (1980) life-span, life-space approach to career development, and Cron’s (1984) career development framework. These frameworks have in common that they propose several discrete, age-related, and more or less normative life and career stages with associated “developmental tasks” (Havighurst, 1948).

As careers became more flexible in the last two decades of the previous century, two new career theories were developed (see Table 1). According to boundaryless career theory, individuals experience both physical boundaries (i.e., working for a specific employer, in a specific field) and psychological boundaries (i.e., specific skills and abilities) that they need to cross to become mobile in their careers (Arthur & Rousseau, 1996). Protean career theory states that career mobility is driven by individuals’ core values and self- directedness rather than the organization (Hall & Moss, 1998). Although these two theories were not explicitly based on the lifespan perspective, they are consistent with it, as they conceive career development as a continuous and modifiable process that is primarily shaped by the decisions and actions of “career actors” rather than a linear career progression consistent with a life stage approach.

Three more recent vocational theories are consistent with, or even explicitly based on, both lifespan and life course perspectives (see Table 1). First, while kaleidoscope career theory does not directly draw on these perspectives, it emphasizes both structure (i.e., multiple social roles and the relational nature of careers) and agency (i.e., actively rearranging roles and relationships in an attempt to craft careers) in women’s careers (Mainiero & Sullivan, 2005). Second, Savickas et al.’s (2009) life design paradigm for career con-struction emphasizes both the life-long nature (e.g., “Each life has become even more of an individual process, still influenced by environmental factors yet constructed to a large extent by individuals;” p. 244) and the contextual nature of careers (e.g., “All roles and environments relevant to the person should become part of the intervention that constructs career stories and builds lives;” p. 244). Third, sustainable careers theory (Van der Heijden & De Vos, 2015) is explicitly based on the lifespan perspective. In particular, De Vos et al. (2020) highlight the relevance of the selection, optimization, and compensation model as well as socioemotional selectivity theory, because they “help us to understand the sustainability of careers especially from the perspective of changes that occur during the life-span based on evolving motivations and attitudes” (p. 7). In addition, consistent with the life course perspective, their model of sustainable careers includes both person (i.e., agency, proactivity, adaptability, meaning) and context factors (i.e., work group, or-ganization, occupational sector, institutional context, nation, private life; De Vos et al., 2020).

Finally, two vocational theories are explicitly based on the life course perspective (see Table 1). First, similar to the boundaryless and the protean career concepts, frayed careers theory criticizes the normative linearity and upward direction of earlier career theories (Sabelis & Schilling, 2013). However, rather than emphasizing individual agency, proactivity, values, and self-directedness, frayed careers theory focuses on the importance of the context, including social roles (e.g., gender, age, socioeconomic class), relationships, and rhythmic patterns (i.e., “the reiteration of similarities over time;” Sabelis & Schilling, 2013, p. 131) in the representation and construction of careers. Second, the theory of flexible careers across the life course adopts a multilevel approach to careers, including the broader institutional environment, organizational policies and practices, as well as individual career decisions across various life course transitions (e.g., school-to-work; work-to-retirement; Moen & Sweet, 2004; Tomlinson et al., 2018).

2.3. Integrative theoretical framework

Based on our review of the life stage, lifespan, and life course perspectives, associated vocational theories (Table 1), as well as age- related person and contextual changes (Fig. 1), we derived a theoretical framework to integrate research on the role of age for vocational behavior and development (see Fig. 2). In short, this framework suggests that age is related to work and career outcomes (path labeled with “(a)”) through person and contextual characteristics (paths “(b1)”). Work and career outcomes can also, in turn, affect person and contextual characteristics (paths “(b2)”). Finally, the framework proposes several moderation effects (paths “(c1- c3)”).

Consistent with the lifespan perspective, which superseded the life stage approach, the framework focuses on age as a continuous variable (Bohlmann et al., 2018; Schwall, 2012). We broadly classify important work and career outcomes into five categories: career decisions and success (e.g., job changes, salary), job search and turnover, work motivation and behavior (e.g., job performance), work and career attitudes (e.g., satisfaction), as well as occupational health and well-being (e.g., vigor, emotional exhaustion; see Zacher, 2015). In Fig. 2, simple bivariate associations between age and these outcomes are labeled with “(a).” These associations reflect age- related differences or changes in work and career outcomes across the lifespan or life course.

The framework further suggests that age is associated with both person and contextual characteristics (Fig. 1) which, in turn, may

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

6

jointly impact work and career outcomes (paths labeled with “(b1)” in Fig. 2). Consistent with the lifespan perspective, individuals may experience growth, decline, and stability in different person characteristics with increasing age. For example, as people get older, they tend to become more conscientious (Roberts, Walton, & Viechtbauer, 2006), which should have positive effects on job performance and organizational commitment. Moreover, both lifespan and life course perspectives suggest that, as people age, they select them-selves into and are selected into different developmental contexts (see also Ford & Lerner, 1992; Lerner & Busch-Rossnagel, 1981). For instance, older employees are more likely than younger employees to face age discrimination on the job (Posthuma & Campion, 2009), which could have detrimental consequences for their work motivation and well-being.

The interplay between age-related person and contextual characteristics could lead to strengthened or compensatory effects on work and career outcomes (Ackerman & Kanfer, 2020). For instance, the negative effects of age-related decline in fluid cognitive abilities on work performance (Salthouse, 2012) could be strengthened when employees additionally face age discrimination at work. In contrast, age-related increases in work experience and socioemotional abilities (Doerwald, Scheibe, Zacher, & Van Yperen, 2016) could buffer potential negative effects of older employees’ informal eldercare responsibilities on work and career outcomes.

As shown in Fig. 2, and consistent with the emphasis on biographical or life history effects in the life course perspective (e.g., cumulative advantage and disadvantage; Dannefer, 2003; O’Rand, 1996), the theoretical framework also includes potential reverse effects (paths “(b2)”), such that age-related changes in work and career outcomes may lead to changes in person and contextual characteristics. For example, an experienced employee’s decision to move into a more challenging job might further improve their knowledge and skills. Similarly, this career decision may also lead to changes in various job demands and resources (Feldman & Ng, 2007).

Consistent with propositions regarding plasticity and contextualism by the lifespan perspective, as well as the interplay between structure and agency emphasized by the life course perspective, the framework also suggests that relationships between age and certain work and career outcomes can be moderated by person characteristics, contextual characteristics, and/or other work and career outcomes (paths labeled with “(c1)” in Fig. 2). For example, the positive relationship between age and job satisfaction is stronger for workers with high as compared to low job autonomy (Zaniboni et al., 2016). Moreover, the relationships between age and person characteristics can be moderated by other person characteristics, contextual characteristics, and/or work and career outcomes (paths labeled with “(c2)” in Fig. 2). For example, negative effects of age on fluid cognitive abilities can be weakened by high levels of job complexity (Schooler, Mulatu, & Oates, 1999) and by a physically, cognitively, and socially active lifestyle, including work behaviors such as mentoring (Hertzog, Kramer, Wilson, & Lindenberger, 2009).

Finally, also consistent with the notions of plasticity and contextualism in the lifespan perspective, as well the interplay between structure and agency emphasized by the life course perspective, the relationships between age and contextual characteristics (e.g., the active self-selection into or, due to structural opportunities and constraints, being selected into certain life and work environments; e. g., Leana, Mittal, & Stiehl, 2012) can be moderated by person characteristics, other contextual characteristics, and/or work and career outcomes (paths labeled with “(c3)” in Fig. 2). For example, age-related increases in generativity motives (Kooij & Van De Voorde, 2011) and organizational citizenship behavior (Ng & Feldman, 2008b) could make it more likely that older employees volunteer for work-related opportunities to mentor others or to represent their organization to stakeholders outside of the organization (Calo, 2005).

3. Literature review

3.1. Search process and inclusion/exclusion criteria

Our theoretical framework (Fig. 2) suggests three categories of age-related relationships or effects: (a) bivariate relationships

Fig. 2. Theoretical framework on the role of age for vocational behavior and development based on lifespan and life course perspectives. Note. (a) Bivariate relationships between age and work and career outcomes (see Section 3.2), (b) Person and contextual mechanisms of re-lationships between age and work and career outcomes (see Section 3.3), and (c) interactive effects of age with person characteristics, contextual characteristics, and/or work and career outcomes (see Section 3.4).

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

7

between age and various work and career outcomes, (b) person and contextual mechanisms of relationships between age and these work and career outcomes, and (c) interactive effects between age and person characteristics, contextual characteristics, and/or work and career outcomes. To illustrate these categories, we searched Web of Science for JVB articles adopting aging, life stage, lifespan, and life course perspectives on vocational behavior and development that have been published over the past five decades (i.e., since the first issue in 1971). Our search1 in December 2019 yielded 503 articles. An updated search to support a revision effort in May 2020 yielded 15 additional articles.

Due to our focus on age-related differences or changes and the longer-term processes of life stage, lifespan, and life course development, we decided to not include research investigating work and career-related topics within only one specific life stage (e.g., youth, middle-age, older adults), career stage (e.g., students, mid-career workers, retirees), or “generation” (e.g., “baby boomers”). Similarly, we also did not include research on single transitions between two adjacent life and career stages (e.g., school-to-work transition, work-to-retirement transition). Finally, we only included studies in which age is treated as a substantive variable, thus excluding studies that included age merely as a tangential control variable. Accordingly, the first author screened the titles and ab-stracts of these articles to identify those that (a) adopted life stage, lifespan, and/or life course perspectives on vocational behavior and development, (b) did not focus solely on specific and narrow age groups, life stages, career stages, or “generations,” (c) did not focus solely on specific life or career transitions, and (d) focused on age as a substantive variable. Moreover, (e) multi-wave and longitudinal studies that did not explicitly focus on age were not included (e.g., studies measuring different predictor and outcome variables several years or decades apart without studying age were excluded). Applying these criteria resulted in a sample of 85 articles. Fig. 3 highlights several key articles, including highly cited ones, on the role of age for vocational behavior and development published over the past five decades in JVB.

3.2. Relationships between age and work and career outcomes

We first review articles that examine bivariate associations between age and various work and career outcomes (i.e., path labeled with “(a)” in Fig. 2). In each section, we note whether or not a systematic review or meta-analysis of the respective relationship exists (for an overview of the cumulative evidence published in JVB and in other journals, including meta-analytic coefficients, and future research needs, see Table 2). In addition, we point out when a study is based on the life stage, lifespan, or life course perspectives and/ or associated theories of vocational behavior and development (see Table 1).

3.2.1. Career decisions and success

3.2.1.1. Vocational interests. No systematic review or meta-analysis on relationships between age and vocational interests exists. An early primary study published in JVB showed that older adults have more specific and differentiated perceptions of occupations than younger adults (Edwards, Nafziger, & Holland, 1974). Another early study examined age differences in attitudes toward sex role division in various occupations (Shepard & Hess, 1975). The authors asked whether each occupation should be performed by women, men, or either. They found an inverted U-shape relationship between age and liberality (i.e., the number of “either” responses). Using data from the 1960 and 1970 censuses in the United States, another study reported actual age, cohort, and gender differences in various occupations (G. D. Gottfredson & Daiger, 1977). For example, in 1965, the percentage of younger women working in realistic oc-cupations was lower than the percentage of older women. While it is difficult to detect a general pattern from these descriptive sta-tistics, the authors conclude that “the age differences in employment patterns suggest that different kinds of work may be most readily available for people of different ages” (p. 133).

A more recent study published in JVB investigated relationships between age and vocational interests of men with traumatic spinal cord injury across 11 years (Rohe & Krause, 1998). Contrary to expectations, the study did neither find age-related increases in artistic and social interests nor age-related decreases in interests regarding physically demanding and adventuresome activities. Two addi-tional studies investigated the stability of vocational interests over several years. A study by Swanson and Hansen (1988) found a “remarkable degree of interest stability” (p. 199) across 4-, 8-, and 12-year intervals after the freshman year in college, in terms of both within-person and rank-order stability. This finding was confirmed by a later longitudinal study, which showed that vocational in-terests were fairly stable among both male and female adolescents from grades 8 to 12, with increased stability at relatively older ages (Tracey, Robbins, & Hofsess, 2005). Links between age and vocational interests continue to be a topic of interest in the literature, with more recent studies investigating the interplay between age and gender (Morris, 2016), as well as the variability of vocational interests across different ages and genders (Ion, Nye, & Iliescu, 2019).

3.2.1.2. Engagement in training and development activities. Whereas a meta-analysis found that age is unrelated to performance in training programs (Ng & Feldman, 2008b), another meta-analysis suggests that older employees are less motivated to participate in training and career development activities in the first place (Ng & Feldman, 2012). A primary study published in JVB examined re-lationships between age and employees’ “human capital investment” (Simpson, Greller, & Stroh, 2002). Results showed that older

1 We used the following search terms: “Journal of Vocational Behavior” (under Publication Name) AND age* OR aging OR young* OR youth OR “middle age*” OR “middle-age*” OR old* OR mature OR senior OR lifespan OR “life span” OR “life-span” OR lifecourse OR “life course” OR “life- course” OR “lifestage*” OR “life stage*” OR “life-stage*” OR “lifetime” OR “life time” OR “life-time” OR “lifecycle” OR “life cycle” OR “life-cycle” OR “lifephase*” OR “life phase*” OR “life-phase*” (under Topic, which includes title, abstract, and keywords).

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

8

employees participated less frequently in general skill-building activities, whereas they participated more frequently in academic credentialing programs, targeted career and job-related courses, and on-the-job computer-based training than younger employees. Consistently, more recent work suggests that older workers benefit more from training and development activities when there is a good fit between the design of activities and workers’ abilities and needs (Beier, Teachout, & Cox, 2012; Sterns & Harrington, 2019).

3.2.1.3. Mentoring. No systematic review or meta-analysis on relationships between age and mentoring exists. A primary study published in JVB examined associations between age and supervisors’ intention to mentor others and perceived barriers to mentoring (Allen, Poteet, Russell, & Dobbins, 1997). Contrary to expectations, age was negatively related to supervisors’ intention to mentor others, and unrelated to their perceptions of barriers to mentoring others. Subsequent research has also found mixed evidence regarding the associations between age and different mentoring outcomes (Finkelstein, Allen, & Rhoton, 2003; Finkelstein, Allen, Ritchie, Lynch, & Montei, 2012).

3.2.1.4. Career mobility. While no systematic review or meta-analysis on links between age and career mobility exists, several primary studies published in JVB have focused on these relationships. One study found a negative relationship between executives’ age and their likelihood to change jobs (Cheramie, Sturman, & Walsh, 2007). Another study found that “career changers” were, on average, five years younger than “career stayers” (Carless & Arnup, 2011). A longitudinal study across 20 years showed that older people were more likely to follow a traditional career path (i.e., long-term full time employment in one organization; Biemann, Zacher, & Feldman, 2012). By contrast, younger people were more likely to have full-time, yet mobile career patterns or patterns characterized by changes from full-time to part-time careers; they were also less likely to be self-employed than older people. Finally, a study on different types of part-time employment reported that older people were more likely to work in “bad part-time” positions (i.e., fewer responsibilities, lower pay and flexibility), whereas younger people tend to work in “student” or “transition” types of part-time employment (Haines, Doray-Demers, & Martin, 2018).

3.2.1.5. Career adaptability. A meta-analysis published in JVB (Rudolph, Lavigne, & Zacher, 2017) found that age is unrelated to career adaptability, which has been defined as a psychosocial resource for managing career-related tasks, transitions, and traumas (Savickas, 1997). Accordingly, researchers have raised the possibility that age and career adaptability may interact in influencing work and career outcomes (Zacher & Griffin, 2015).

3.2.1.6. Retirement. A meta-analysis on retirement planning and decision making published in JVB did not include age as a predictor (Topa, Moriano, Depolo, Alcover, & Morales, 2009). However, researchers have suggested that age may be related to specific retirement-related decisions, such as whether to engage in bridge employment (Wang & Shultz, 2010). An early study published in JVB showed that chronological age was negatively, whereas subjective age (i.e., how old people feel) was positively related to a favorable attitude toward retirement among older top executives (Eden & Jacobson, 1976). Researchers have recently become more interested in the role of subjective age at work. For instance, a set of three studies showed that subjective age is positively related to favorable work and career outcomes, but that these associations are confounded by core self-evaluations (i.e., how people generally feel about themselves; Zacher & Rudolph, 2019).

3.2.1.7. Career success. A meta-analysis on indicators of objective and subjective career success found that age was positively related to salary, whereas age was unrelated to promotion and career satisfaction (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005).

Fig. 3. Key articles on the role of age for vocational behavior and development published in the Journal of Vocational Behavior. Note. Numbers in parentheses refer to numbers of citations according to Web of Science (as of 29 May 2020).

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

9

3.2.2. Job search and turnover A meta-analysis reported negative associations between age and reemployment status and reemployment speed, with stronger

associations among adults older than 50 years (Wanberg, Kanfer, Hamann, & Zhang, 2016). Moreover, the authors found negative, yet relatively weak relationships between age and job search intention, job search self-efficacy, and job search intensity. Consistently, a recent study published in JVB found that age was positively related to the duration of unemployment in a sample of long-term un-employed people (i.e., six months unemployed or more; Munyon, Madden, Madden, & Vigoda-Gadot, 2019). Another meta-analysis

Table 2 Overview of results of systematic reviews/meta-analyses on bivariate relationships between age and work and career outcomes.

Work and career outcome

Results of systematic review or meta-analysis on bivariate relationship

Reference (if available) Future research need

Career decisions and success

Vocational interests No systematic review/meta-analysis exists. Conduct systematic review/ meta-analysis.

Engagement in training and development activities

Age is unrelated to performance in training programs (ρ =− 0.04); older employees are less motivated to participate in training and career development activities than younger employees (ρs between − 0.04 and − 0.22).

Ng and Feldman (2008b); Ng and Feldman (2012)

Update meta-analyses; examine mechanisms and boundary conditions.

Mentoring No systematic review/meta-analysis exists. Conduct systematic review/ meta-analysis.

Career mobility No systematic review/meta-analysis exists. Conduct systematic review/ meta-analysis.

Career adaptability Age is unrelated to career adaptability (ρ = 0.03). Rudolph et al. (2017) Examine mechanisms and boundary conditions.

Retirement No systematic review/meta-analysis exists. Conduct systematic review/ meta-analysis.

Career success Age is positively related to salary (ρ = 0.26) and unrelated to promotion (ρ = 0.02) and career satisfaction (ρ = 0.00).

Ng et al. (2005) Update meta-analysis; examine mechanisms and boundary conditions.

Job search and turnover Age is negatively related to reemployment status (ρ =− 0.15), reemployment speed (ρ = − 0.17), job search intention (ρ = − 0.06), job search self-efficacy (ρ = − 0.08), job search intensity (ρ = − 0.08), and voluntary turnover (ρ = − 0.14).

Wanberg et al. (2016); Ng and Feldman (2009)

Examine mechanisms and boundary conditions.

Work motivation and performance

Age is positively related to job involvement (ρ = 0.12), job motivation (ρ = 0.11), and job self-efficacy (ρ = 0.09). Age is generally unrelated to task performance (ρ = 0.03) and creative performance (ρ = 0.02), positively related to organizational citizenship behavior (ρ = 0.08), innovative work behavior (ρ = 0.07), and employee green behavior (ρ = 0.10), and negatively related to counterproductive work behavior (ρ = − 0.12).

Ng and Feldman (2008b); Ng and Feldman (2012); Ng and Feldman (2013c), Wiernik et al. (2016)

Update meta-analyses; examine mechanisms and boundary conditions.

Work and career attitudes

Work attitudes Age is generally positively related to favorable attitudes toward work tasks (e.g. satisfaction with work itself, ρ =0.22), attitudes toward colleagues and supervisors (e.g., interpersonal trust, ρ = 0.17), and attitudes toward the organization (e.g., commitment, ρ = 0.24).

Ng & Feldman (2010) Update meta-analysis; examine mechanisms and boundary conditions.

Career attitudes Age is positively related to career commitment (ρ = 0.08; qualified by inverted U-shaped association).

Katz et al. (2019) Examine mechanisms and boundary conditions.

Job satisfaction Age is positively related to job satisfaction (ρ = 0.18). Ng & Feldman (2010) Update meta-analysis; examine mechanisms and boundary conditions.

Work values and motives

Work values are rather stable individual differences, with lower stability levels among younger compared to older adults. Age is positively related to intrinsic work-related motives (ρ = 0.07), negatively related to extrinsic motives (ρ = − 0.10), growth motives (ρ = − 0.10), and security motives (ρ = − 0.08), and unrelated to social motives (ρ =− 0.02).

Jin and Rounds (2012); Kooij et al. (2011)

Update meta-analyses; examine mechanisms and boundary conditions.

Other work attitudes Age is unrelated to applicant attraction to organizations (ρ = − 0.02).

Swider et al. (2015) Examine mechanisms and boundary conditions.

Occupational health and wellbeing

Age is unrelated to self-reported physical health (ρ = 0.00), psychosomatic complaints (ρ = 0.03), negatively related to poor mental health (ρs between − 0.01 and − 0.15), and positively related to objective indices of poor physical health (ρs between 0.12 and 0.34). Age is unrelated to perceived work stress (ρ = 0.02).

Ng and Feldman (2013a); Rauschenbach et al. (2013)

Update meta-analyses; examine mechanisms and boundary conditions.

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

10

found a negative link between age and voluntary turnover (Ng & Feldman, 2009). Consistently, primary studies published in JVB showed that age was negatively related to the intent to leave one’s profession in a sample of medical technologists (Blau & Lunz, 1998) and to occupational turnover intention as well as actual turnover among nurses (Van der Heijden, Peeters, Le Blanc, & Van Breukelen, 2018).

3.2.3. Work motivation and behavior Two meta-analyses did not confirm the—still rather widespread—stereotypes that older employees are less motivated and perform

more poorly than younger employees. In fact, age was weakly and positively related to the motivational variables of job involvement, job motivation, and job self-efficacy (Ng & Feldman, 2012). Moreover, age was generally unrelated to core task performance and creative performance, whereas it was weakly positively related to organizational citizenship behavior and negatively related to counterproductive work behavior (Ng & Feldman, 2008b). In addition, there are two meta-analyses on associations between age and innovative work behavior (Ng & Feldman, 2013c), as well as age and employee green behavior (Wiernik, Dilchert, & Ones, 2016), which both suggested relatively weak positive relationships.

3.2.4. Work and career attitudes

3.2.4.1. Work attitudes. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen et al., 1999), which suggests that older as compared to younger workers prioritize positive experiences and meaningfulness, Ng and Feldman (2010b) presented a meta-analysis on bivariate associations between age and 35 work-related attitudes, showing that age is generally positively, and weakly to moderately related to favorable attitudes toward work tasks (e.g., satisfaction with work itself), colleagues and supervisors (e.g., interpersonal trust), and the organization (e.g., commitment). Similar results emerged when additionally controlling for organizational tenure. Moreover, the authors did not find consistent evidence for curvilinear effects of age on work attitudes.

A study published in JVB adopted a life stage perspective by examining the stability-transition hypothesis from Levinson’s (1986) life stage theory of adult development, which suggests that work attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction, work involvement, intention to stay) either remain stable in certain stages (i.e., 22–28, 33–39, 45–49, 55–60) or change in other stages (i.e., 29–32, 40–44, 50–54 years; Smart & Peterson, 1994). Using a sample of female professionals representing each of Levinson’s seven stages from 22 to 60 years, the researchers did not find evidence for the assumption that career attitudes change in cyclic alternation across careers.

3.2.4.2. Career attitudes. An early study published in JVB examined relationships between age and various career attitudes of female managers (Ornstein & Isabella, 1990). The researchers split the age variable, based on Levinson’s (1986) theory of adult development, into several discrete “age stages” (i.e., 22–28, 29–32, 33–39, 40–44, 45–60 years) and compared the predictive validity of these “age stages” to Super’s (1953) career development stages (i.e., exploration, establishment, maintenance, decline). They found that orga-nizational commitment was lower during the age 30 transition (i.e., 29–32 years) than at all other ages. Moreover, intention to leave was highest during the entry life structure of early adulthood (i.e., 22–28) and at the age 30 transition stages, became lower during the culminating early adulthood stage (i.e., 33–39), and even lower during the midlife transition stage (i.e., 40–44). Desire for promotion was lower in the 45–60 years age group than in all other stages. In contrast, the researchers did not find effects of “age stages” on job satisfaction and willingness to relocate, and Super’s psychological stages did not have effects.

While Levinson’s (1986) and Cron’s (1984) vocational theories based on the life stage perspective are not frequently used in research on the role of age for vocational behavior and development anymore, Super’s (1980) life-span, life-space approach is still often employed as a theoretical framework. An example is a recent meta-analysis in JVB on the relationship between age and career commitment, or people’s dedication to their career, profession, or occupation (Katz, Rudolph, & Zacher, 2019). Using meta-analytic data as well as data from two primary studies, the researchers found a weak and positive relationship between age and career commitment, which was qualified by evidence for an inverted U-shaped association.

Finally, based on protean and boundaryless career theories, a primary study published in JVB examined relationships between age and protean career attitudes (i.e., self-directed and values-driven) and boundaryless career attitudes (i.e., physical and psychological mobility; Segers, Inceoglu, Vloeberghs, Bartram, & Henderickx, 2008). Results showed that, for protean career attitudes, age nega-tively predicted employees’ self-directed motivators to manage their career, whereas it positively predicted values-driven motivators. Regarding boundaryless career attitudes, age negatively predicted physical mobility motivators, but not psychological mobility motivators.

3.2.4.3. Job satisfaction. A meta-analysis showed that age is positively related to overall job satisfaction (Ng & Feldman, 2010b). An early study published in JVB examined relationships between age and blue-collar workers’ satisfaction with intrinsic (i.e., “the work itself”) and extrinsic work outcomes (i.e., pay, promotion, coworkers, supervision), while controlling for organizational tenure (Schwab & Heneman, 1977). The authors concluded that “a linear approximation of the age-satisfaction relationships is adequate, and that only satisfaction with intrinsic outcomes is consistently [positively] related to age” (p. 212). A later primary study also examined relations among age, tenure (job, supervisor, and organization), and job satisfaction (Bedeian, Ferris, & Kacmar, 1992). The re-searchers concluded that the different forms of tenure were more consistent predictors of job satisfaction than age. However, this finding seems outdated given Ng and Feldman’s (2010b) meta-analysis. For example, they showed that the relationship between age and job satisfaction remained positive and significant after controlling for organizational tenure. More recent research on this topic has used longitudinal instead of cross-sectional data. Specifically, data collected at 34 waves across 40 years in two nationally

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

11

representative samples showed that people became less satisfied with their job as their organizational tenure increased (Riza, Ganzach, & Liu, 2018). At the same time, as people got older (and changed organizations), their job satisfaction increased. These associations were mediated by job rewards (e.g., pay).

3.2.4.4. Work values and motives. A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published in JVB investigated rank-order stability and mean- level change in work values (i.e., intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status) across the lifespan (Jin & Rounds, 2012). Results showed that work values represent rather stable individual differences, with lower stability levels among younger adults (i.e., operationalized as 18–22 years) and higher stability among “older” adults (i.e., operationalized as 22 years and older). Moreover, younger adults found intrinsic values more important than other values. In contrast, extrinsic values became more important, whereas intrinsic, social, and status values became less important, during the initial entry of the workforce (i.e., 22–26 years). Later in adulthood (i.e., 26 years and older), extrinsic and status values increased. These findings on work values are only partially consistent with a meta-analysis on age and work motives (Kooij, De Lange, Jansen, Kanfer, & Dikkers, 2011), which reported positive associations between age and intrinsic motives (e.g., interesting work, need for autonomy), and negative associations between age and extrinsic motives (e.g., recognition, compensation). The researchers based their assumptions on lifespan theories, including the selection, optimization, and compensation model, socioemotional selectivity theory, and the lifespan theory of control.

3.2.4.5. Other work attitudes. We identified two additional studies on age and unique work-related attitudes that were published in JVB. A meta-analysis did not find the hypothesized negative association between applicants’ age and applicants’ attraction to orga-nizations, but a weak and non-significant relationship (Swider, Zimmerman, Charlier, & Pierotti, 2015). Furthermore, an experimental study showed that participants (as mock jurors) evaluated that sexual harassment behaviors shown by older males and younger fe-males would be perceived as less unwelcome by the target than the same behavior exhibited by younger males and older females (Wayne, 2000).

3.2.5. Occupational health and well-being A meta-analysis of relationships between age and different indicators of health published in JVB found that older employees do not

self-report lower levels of mental health or more physical health problems than younger employees (Ng & Feldman, 2013a). However, there was evidence for moderately positive associations between age and more objective, clinical indices of poor physical health, including blood pressure, cholesterol level, and body mass index. Another meta-analysis reported that age is unrelated to perceived work stress (Rauschenbach, Krumm, Thielgen, & Hertel, 2013). In terms of psychological well-being, a primary study published in JVB found that age was positively related to life satisfaction and negatively related to perceptions of discrimination among workers with adult disability onset (Moore, Konrad, Yang, Ng, & Doherty, 2011). In contrast, age was unrelated to these outcomes among workers with childhood disability onset.

3.2.6. Summary Meta-analytic and primary research over the past decades has found evidence for numerous positive, negative, or zero bivariate

associations between age and important work and career outcomes. It is important to keep in mind, however, that age by itself is not the “cause” of observed differences or changes in these outcomes (Wohlwill, 1970; Zacher, 2015). Thus, over the past few years, a consensus has emerged among work and aging scholars that age-related differences or changes in outcomes should be explained by also investigating other person or contextual variables as age-related mechanisms (e.g., Gielnik, Zacher, & Wang, 2018).

3.3. Person and contextual mechanisms of relationships between age and outcomes

In this section, we review articles that propose and test mediators of relationships between age and various work and career outcomes (i.e., paths labeled with “(b)” in Fig. 1).

3.3.1. Person-related mechanisms

3.3.1.1. Career decisions and success. There is no cumulative evidence on person-related mechanisms (e.g., age-related differences or changes in knowledge, skills, abilities, or motivation; see Fig. 1) of age-career outcomes relationships. In an early article published in JVB, researchers reported results of three primary studies that examined the role of value discounting over time for career decisions with delayed outcomes (Hesketh, Watson-Brown, & Whiteley, 1998). One of the studies showed that older participants discounted less than younger participants at shorter delays, whereas they discounted more at very long delays, suggesting that time-based value discounting may be a psychological mechanism in relations between age and career decisions.

3.3.1.2. Job search and turnover. A theory paper on job search and (re-)employment from a lifespan perspective explains the role of age and age-related mechanisms in the job search process (Fasbender & Klehe, 2018). Specifically, based on the selection, optimi-zation, and compensation model and socioemotional selectivity theory, job seekers’ aging experiences, occupational future time perspective, and the use of adaptive coping strategies are proposed to interact with self-regulatory resources (i.e., self-efficacy, self- control, and proactivity) in influencing the job search process and outcomes. Empirical research on these age-related mechanisms, however, is currently very limited (for an exception, see Zacher, 2013).

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

12

3.3.1.3. Work motivation and behavior. Several conceptual and review articles have focused on relationships between age and work motivation and behavior, and especially job performance (e.g., Cleveland, Huebner, Anderson, & Agbeke, 2019). An early conceptual article published in JVB focused on explanations for the negative relationship between age and outstanding occupational achievement (Mumford, 1984). The researcher argued that young adults tend to make use of an “accommodating adaptive style,” which should increase the likelihood of major contributions in the work context. In contrast, he proposed that middle-aged adults use a more “realistic, controlling adaptive style” linked to more minor contributions. More recent research supports the assumption that the use of work-related strategies (e.g., greater reliance on others, shifting jobs) that are consistent with propositions of the model of selection, optimization, and compensation, can explain age differences in occupational achievements and performance (Salthouse, 2012).

Based on the lifespan perspective and the associated model of selection, optimization, and compensation and socioemotional selectivity theory, a review article published in JVB examined five broad areas of age-related changes that impact on task, citizenship, and counterproductive performance, including changes in cognitive abilities, personality, goal orientation, social-emotional experi-ence, and health (Ng & Feldman, 2013b). While age is negatively related to indicators of fluid cognitive abilities (e.g., fast information processing), research suggests that older adults can compensate for these declines using their accumulated knowledge and experience (i.e., crystallized cognitive abilities) and, thus, maintain their levels of job performance (for a recent review, see Fisher, Chaffee, Tetrick, Davalos, & Potter, 2017). In terms of personality change across the lifespan, the recently proposed demands-affordances transactional (DATA) model suggests that personality characteristics do not only influence work behavior and outcomes, but that demands at different levels of the work environment (i.e., job, group, organization, occupation) also shape personality over time via person-environment fit mechanisms (Woods, Wille, Wu, Lievens, & De Fruyt, 2019). At the core of the DATA model are dynamic demands-affordances transactions, which involve the activation of relevant person characteristics (i.e., affordances) through work demands, as well as the motivational process to achieve a better fit between oneself and one’s work demands after achieving positive work and career outcomes.

Consistent with propositions of the lifespan perspective on age-related changes in goal orientation (Ebner, Freund, & Baltes, 2006), a study published in JVB showed that age has an indirect effect on peer-rated work performance through focus on opportunities, a dimension of occupational future time perspective that indicates how many new goals and possibilities people expect to have in their work-related future (Zacher, Heusner, Schmitz, Zwierzanska, & Frese, 2010). A meta-analysis also finds that focus on opportunities is negatively related to age and positively related to performance (Rudolph, Kooij, Rauvola, & Zacher, 2018). Regarding social-emotional experiences, a systematic review suggests that older workers, on average, may be better able to regulate their emotions than younger workers (Doerwald et al., 2016). Finally, similar to cognitive declines, researchers have suggested that the use of cognitive-behavioral strategies and supportive work environments can compensate for potential declines in physical abilities and health among older workers (Maertens, Putter, Chen, Diehl, & Huang, 2012; Salthouse, 2012).

3.3.1.4. Work and career attitudes. Currently no specific theory or systematic evidence regarding mechanisms of links between age and work and career attitudes exists, suggesting an opportunity for future research. For instance, socioemotional selectivity theory argues that a decline in future time perspective constitutes a mechanism to explain age-related increases in the preference for positive experiences and meaningfulness (Carstensen et al., 1999; see also Ng & Feldman, 2010b).

3.3.1.5. Occupational health and well-being. While some person-related mechanisms (e.g., emotion regulation and coping) linking age with occupational health and well-being outcomes have been addressed conceptually (Scheibe & Zacher, 2013), no systematic review of empirical evidence exists. An early study published in JVB found that men became more mature and psychologically healthy be-tween their early 20s (i.e., in college) and their early 30s (i.e., in roles of professionals and business managers; Heath, 1977). The study showed that socialization experiences with partners and in occupations were underlying this maturing process. This finding is in line with theories of personality development, in particular the neo-socioanalytic model of personality trait change (Roberts & Wood, 2006). Consistent with the plasticity principle of the lifespan perspective (Staudinger, 2020), this model explains how contextual factors can lead to change in personality, especially when individuals are highly invested in certain social roles (Nye & Roberts, 2019).

Another study published in JVB found that older workers reported lower levels of vocational, psychological, physical, and inter-personal strain than younger workers (Osipow, Doty, & Spokane, 1985). Results regarding potential explanations were mixed. While older workers reported more overload and responsibility, they also reported fewer insufficiencies, boundary role, and physical environment stressors than younger workers. Older workers had higher levels of recreational, self-care, and rational-cognitive coping resources (but there were no age differences in social support). The researchers argue that workers learn to use effective coping strategies with increasing age; however, they also acknowledge that workers who do not cope well may leave the workforce earlier due to illness (i.e., “healthy worker effect”). These findings are consistent with research based on the lifespan theory of control, which showed that older workers use more active problem-focused coping (but not emotion-focused coping) and, thus, experience less strain than younger workers (Hertel, Rauschenbach, Thielgen, & Krumm, 2015).

3.3.2. Contextual mechanisms

3.3.2.1. Career decisions and success. An early conceptual article published in JVB explained how people’s work and non-work roles (e.g., student, citizen, worker, spouse, parent) as well as associated personal investments and career expectations change across the lifespan (Super, 1980). Numerous subsequent studies and review articles have used the life-span, life-space approach as a framework (e.g., Katz et al., 2019; Zacher, Rudolph, Todorovic, & Ammann, 2019). An early study published in JVB examined explanations for

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

13

links between female academics’ age and their attitudes regarding managerial career roles (Russell & Rush, 1987). “Older” women over 34 years were less interested in a managerial career and perceived different barriers to such a career than younger women. While women over 34 years had lower self-efficacy and were more interested in professional guidance, younger women expressed more concern about family and social issues, such as provision of day-care services, counseling, and potential resistance from subordinates.

Regarding such resistance, research published in JVB suggests that certain work roles and occupations are perceived as occupied by younger workers, whereas others are perceived as occupied by older workers (e.g., manager; Gordon & Arvey, 1986). A later study showed that jobs perceived as occupied mainly by older employees make fewer demands on cognitive resources, but not necessarily on physical resources (Warr & Pennington, 1994). The notion of implicit, age-graded organizational timetables (Lawrence, 1984) is still often used today, for instance to explain consequences of age gaps between leaders and followers (Buengeler, Homan, & Voelpel, 2016).

3.3.2.2. Job search and turnover. A conceptual article by Fasbender and Klehe (2018) focuses on person-related mechanisms and postulates distal contextual factors as moderators of individual-level effects. Specifically, the researchers argue that context factors, such as age and unemployment stereotypes, regulatory and labor market conditions, as well as social demands and support, may influence the job search process and outcomes. A three-wave longitudinal study of unemployed persons published in JVB showed that, together with education and unemployment duration, age was a negative predictor of reemployment (Sverko, Galic, Sersic, & Galesic, 2008). The researchers suggested (but did not test) that age influences reemployment through employers’ hiring decisions, which may be biased by negative age stereotypes. Indeed, later findings showed that lower reemployment changes of older jobseekers were not only due to age differences in job search behavior, but that such age differences can, to a relatively larger extent, also be explained by employer preferences for younger jobseekers (Vansteenkiste, Deschacht, & Sels, 2015).

3.3.2.3. Work motivation and behavior. No systematic evidence on contextual mechanisms underlying associations between age and work motivation and behavior exists. Future research could draw on the life course perspective, for instance the concept of flexible careers (Tomlinson et al., 2018), to examine how various environmental factors (e.g., technological development, organizational policies) impact on work motivation and behavior at different ages. Moreover, research on successful aging based on the lifespan perspective has suggested that job, work group, organizational, and societal factors can play an important role for individuals’ ability and motivation to continue working at higher ages (Kooij, Zacher, Wang, & Heckhausen, 2020).

3.3.2.4. Work and career attitudes. No systematic evidence exists on contextual mechanisms of links between age and work and career attitudes. An early study published in JVB examined whether women’s role pressures explain links of age and life stage with expe-riences of role conflict and satisfaction (Hall, 1975). While work pressures declined through the child-rearing stage and then increased for women with older children, family pressures increased with age. More recent research suggests that work-family conflict is higher among mid-career workers as compared to early- and late-career workers (Huffman, Culbertson, Henning, & Goh, 2013). Consistently, a study published in JVB did not find a difference in non-work orientations (i.e., toward family, personal life, and community) between younger employees (25–34 years) and older employees (50–59 years); however, the study did not include mid-career employees (Hirschi, Herrmann, Nagy, & Spurk, 2016).

3.3.2.5. Occupational health and well-being. There is also no systematic evidence on contextual mechanisms of relationships between age and health and well-being. An early study published in JVB examined links between age and various social role investments from a life stage perspective to gain a better understanding of the “midcareer crisis” among academics (Entrekin & Everett, 1981). The ex-istence of a midlife or midcareer crisis and potential reasons for it continue to be debated in the literature (Freund & Ritter, 2009). While some studies show a dip in (occupational) well-being in midcareer, the average decrease seems rather small (Zacher, Jimmieson, & Bordia, 2014). In terms of potential mechanisms, Zacher, Feldman, and Schulz (2014) found that job demands were highest and social support lowest among mid-career workers compared to early and late career workers.

3.3.3. Summary Several primary studies published over the past decades have investigated mechanisms of relationships between age and work and

career outcomes. However, overall, our knowledge on both age-related person and contextual mediators is still limited. In particular, only very few studies have investigated the relative importance of person and contextual mechanisms in age-outcome relationships. This is surprising, given that several seminal JVB articles (Fig. 3) have stressed that multiple pathways exist. In particular, researchers have proposed that besides biological and psychological mechanisms, the social context, technological change, restructuring, and changing employment relations may play a role for age-related work and career outcomes (Greller & Stroh, 1995). Another article emphasized the importance of physiological and cognitive changes, but also of changing employment and promotional opportunities as well as human resource practices for older workers (Sterns & Miklos, 1995). Moreover, scholars have argued that changes in the psychological career contract, that is, the mutual expectations between employer and employee, have important implications for older employees’ continuous learning, identity development, and career adaptability (Hall & Mirvis, 1995).

3.4. Interactive effects of age with person characteristics, contextual characteristics, and/or work and career outcomes

Interactive effects of age with other person characteristics, contextual characteristics, and/or work and career outcomes on (other)

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

14

outcomes are labeled with “(c)” in Fig. 2.

3.4.1. Career decisions and success

3.4.1.1. Career decisions. No systematic review on interactive effects of age and other variables in predicting career decisions exists. A primary study published in JVB adopted a life course perspective on dual career couples working for the same organization (Moen & Sweet, 2002). While being part of a coworking couple positively predicted younger men’s job prestige, tenure, and commitment to work, younger coworking women had a higher income and experienced increased spillover between work and family. More recently, a study examined the effectiveness of career counseling across one year (Perdrix, Stauffer, Masdonati, Massoudi, & Rossier, 2012). Results showed that younger clients’ career decision difficulties decreased more strongly compared to difficulties reported by older clients, and younger clients also reported higher life satisfaction than older clients after participating in career counseling. A set of two studies further examined interaction effects of age and coping with occupational insecurity on volunteering (Pavlova & Silbereisen, 2014). Results showed that high engagement in coping with occupational uncertainty was associated with volunteering among younger, but not older employees.

3.4.1.2. Career success. No systematic review on interactive effects of age and other variables in predicting career success exists. An early study published in JVB investigated age as a moderator of the association between “managerial talent” (i.e., intelligence, su-pervisory ability, initiative, self-assurance, and achievement) and pay (Siegel & Ghiselli, 1971). Results showed that the associations between these traits and pay were mostly positive for younger managers, became weaker with higher age, and were even negative for older managers. A more recent study that examined interactive effects of age and employability on career success reported consistent findings (Van der Heijden, de Lange, Demerouti, & Van der Heijde, 2009). For younger workers, both self-rated and supervisor-rated employability positively predicted objective career success. In contrast, older workers’ self-rated employability related positively to promotions throughout the career, whereas supervisor ratings of older workers’ employability related negatively to overall pro-motions. Another study conceptualized the extent to which employees experience a “sustainable career” in term of patterns of the relationship between performance and well-being (Tordera, Peiró, Ayala, Villajos, & Truxillo, 2020). Results showed that younger employees experienced a more sustainable career when their organization made use of certain human resource strategies (i.e., per-formance appraisal, recruitment and selection, security, and exit management). In contrast, older employees benefited more from the use of contingent pay and a competitive salary.

3.4.1.3. Retirement. Research on interactive effects of age and other variables on retirement decisions have yielded mixed results. Among employees older than 45 years, age did not moderate the relationships of job satisfaction and career commitment with planned retirement age (Adams, 1999). Another study that was also published in JVB found that negative age meta-stereotypes (i.e., beliefs that most colleagues feel negatively about older workers) predicted a limited future time perspective and, in turn, a stronger intention to retire (Bal et al., 2015). However, age did not moderate these associations. Finally, a meta-analysis on early retirement decisions (Topa, Depolo, & Alcover, 2018) showed that financial resources had a stronger effect on early retirement decisions among workers aged 55 years and older compared to relatively younger workers, while poor health had a greater effect on early retirement decisions among younger workers compared to those 55 years and older.

3.4.2. Job search and turnover A conceptual article postulates interactive effects between age and other factors on the job search process (Fasbender & Klehe,

2018); in contrast, no systematic research on interactive effects on both job search and turnover exists (see Zacher, 2015, for a review). An early study published in JVB examined how the age composition of the applicant pool influences the effect of applicant age on age bias in simulated personnel decisions (Cleveland, Festa, & Montgomery, 1988). Consistent with expectations, older job applicants were rated as less hirable and lower in advancement potential when the proportion of older applicants in the pool was low compared to when it was high. A follow-up study showed that as the proportion of older workers in a job increased, the job was generally rated as “older,” and when the proportion of “older” tasks in a job description increased, ratings of job worth were higher (Cleveland & Hollmann, 1990).

More recently, a longitudinal study across 26 years (i.e., 1984–2010) examined the influence of time, economic cycle, and age on the probability of intra-organizational and inter-organizational job transitions among professional and managerial employees in Germany (Kattenbach et al., 2014). Thus, consistent with the life course perspective, this study focused on several broader contextual factors. Results showed that the probability of job transitions generally declines with age and, over time, this age effect has decreased for intra-organizational, but not inter-organizational transitions. Another study that was also published in JVB examined interactive effects of age and individual characteristics on career adaptive responses (e.g., planning, approaching employers) among workers facing an imminent career transition (e.g., job loss; Van der Horst, Klehe, & Van der Heijden, 2017). Results showed that high levels of locus of control and trait curiosity characteristics buffered the negative association between age and most career adaptive responses.

3.4.3. Work motivation and behavior Studies that examine interactive effects of age and other individual and/or contextual factors on work motivation and behavior are

relatively sparse (e.g., Avery, McKay, & Wilson, 2007; see Zacher, 2015, for a review). An early study published in JVB found that age moderated relationships of incumbent and observer ratings of job complexity with job satisfaction and job performance (Gould, 1979).

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

15

In particular, incumbent-rated job complexity was more positively related to job satisfaction among younger as compared to older workers. In contrast, the positive association between observer-rated job complexity and job performance was stronger among older as compared to younger workers. A more recent study based on the lifespan perspective showed that job complexity buffered the negative association between age and focus on opportunities which, in turn, was positively related to peer ratings of work performance (Zacher et al., 2010).

3.4.4. Work and career attitudes A number of studies on interactive effects between age and other factors on work and career attitudes exist (see Zacher, 2015, for a

review). An early study with blue-collar workers published in JVB showed that the negative relationship between perceived work alternatives and job satisfaction was weaker among older compared to younger workers (Pond & Geyer, 1991). A meta-analysis found that age moderated the negative associations of psychological contract breach with trust, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment (Bal, De Lange, Jansen, & Van der Velde, 2008). While the relationships of contract breach with trust and organizational commitment were stronger for younger compared to older employees, the relationship between contract breach and job satisfaction was unexpectedly stronger for older compared to younger employees.

Two studies published in JVB examined interactive effects of age and other factors on organizational commitment. The first study showed that employees’ perceptions that their current psychological contract could not be replicated in other organizations was more strongly positively related to affective and normative commitment among older compared to younger employees; unexpectedly, the opposite pattern was observed for continuance commitment (Ng & Feldman, 2008a). The other study found that idiosyncratic deals were most strongly positively related to organizational commitment among older employees with lower core self-evaluations (Ng & Feldman, 2010a). Finally, a longitudinal study across eight months examined age as a moderator of the negative effects of two types of career plateau on job attitudes (Yang, Johnson, & Niven, 2018). Job content plateau had indirect effects on lower job satisfaction and higher turnover intentions, whereas hierarchical plateau had an indirect effect on lower organizational commitment, through unmet expectations. While age was positively related to the experience of a career plateau, the indirect effects of career plateau on job at-titudes were independent of age.

3.4.5. Occupational health and well-being Several review articles have found mixed evidence for interactive effects of age with work characteristics on occupational well-

being (Mühlenbrock & Hüffmeier, 2020; Ng & Feldman, 2015; Zacher & Schmitt, 2016). Zacher and Schmitt (2016) concluded that “the patterns of interaction effects of work characteristics and age on occupational well-being are diverse and complex; it appears that the interaction patterns depend not only on the specific work characteristics, but also on the specific occupational well-being indicators under consideration” (p. 3). This conclusion is also evident from JVB articles on this topic. An early study examined age as a moderator of the positive link between job and life satisfaction (Bamundo & Kopelman, 1980). Specifically, the relationship was stronger among employees in mid-career as compared to younger and older employees. Another study examined age as a moderator of relationships between social support, work role stressors, and work-family conflict (Matthews, Bulger, & Barnes-Farrell, 2010). The mixed findings suggest that coworker support was a stronger predictor of work role conflict among older employees, whereas family support was a stronger predictor of work-to-family and family-to-work conflict among younger employees.

More recently, a study published in JVB found that the association between age and work engagement was positive when task significance, interaction outside of one’s organization, or both job characteristics were high, whereas the relationship was non- significant when both characteristics were low (Gostautaite & Buciuniene, 2015). Another study integrated the lifespan perspective with the job-demands-resources model to gain a better understanding of the role of age for associations between job demands and resources with work engagement and burnout (Salmela-Aro & Upadyaya, 2018). Economic problems and information and commu-nication technology demands were positively related to burnout particularly among younger employees, whereas caregiving demands and multicultural work demands were positively related to burnout and negatively related to work engagement among middle-aged and older employees. No age-differential effects were found for personal and job resources. Furthermore, a study examined age as a moderator of effects of job resources (i.e., skill variety, leader-member exchange, procedural fairness) on perceived stress (Yaldiz, Truxillo, Bodner, & Hammer, 2018). When these resources were high, both younger and older workers experienced low levels of stress. In contrast, when resources were low, older workers experienced more stress than younger workers. Finally, based on person- environment fit theory, job design theory, and lifespan theories (i.e., fluid and crystallized intelligence; model of selection, optimi-zation, and compensation; socioemotional selectivity theory), a qualitative study with professional ballet dancers suggested that the interplay between individual factors (i.e., abilities, needs, strategies) and contextual factors (i.e., demands, organizational resources) plays an important role for psychological adjustment and well-being with increasing age (Rodrigues, Cunha, Castanheira, Bal, & Jansen, 2020).

3.4.6. Summary Several studies have examined interactive effects of age and other factors on work and career outcomes, particularly career,

attitudinal, and well-being outcomes. Nevertheless, significant gaps in our knowledge remain to be filled. For example, studies should state whether they intend to contribute to research on successful aging at work by investigating moderators that strengthen or weaken the associations between age and important work and career outcomes (Zacher, 2015), or whether they focus on age-differential effects of other person and/or context factors on such outcomes. In both cases, studies should include age-related mechanisms to better understand why certain person- or job-related factors may lead to differential responses among of employees of different ages (see Wang, Burlacu, Truxillo, James, & Yao, 2015).

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

16

4. Agenda for future research

The preceding review of conceptual and empirical research on the role of age for vocational behavior and development illustrates the breadth of research questions and methodological approaches in this area. Our theoretical framework (see Fig. 2), which guided this review, integrates key elements of the lifespan and life course perspectives to specify both person and contextual mechanisms as well as boundary conditions of relationships between age and various work and career outcomes. The framework is consistent with contemporary approaches to successful aging at work that, mainly based on the lifespan perspective, highlight the role of individual characteristics (e.g., abilities, motives) and more proximal contextual characteristics (e.g., job characteristics, leadership support) for differential development (Zacher, 2015), as well as the importance of actively creating, maintaining, and recovering person-job fit (Kooij et al., 2020). In addition, the framework incorporates the central notions of individual agency (e.g., motivation, action) and structure (i.e., more distal contextual factors, such as social roles, organizational dynamics, and the institutional environment) from the life course perspective (Moen & Sweet, 2004). This integrative theoretical framework may be useful to facilitate future research efforts that aim to develop more comprehensive conceptual models on specific topics and to conduct rigorous studies that address limitations in the current literature. In the following, we present several suggestions for theory development and empirical research.

4.1. Implications for theory development

In this section, we elaborate on three important needs for future theory development. Specifically, new conceptual models should (a) focus on relationships between age and career outcomes, (b) incorporate elements of the life course perspective, especially broader context factors, and (c) propose interactive effects between age and person and contextual characteristics.

First, on a conceptual level, relationships between age and job search outcomes (Fasbender & Klehe, 2018), work motivation and behavior (Cleveland et al., 2019), as well as occupational strain and well-being (Scheibe & Zacher, 2013) are currently best under-stood. In contrast, future theory development efforts based on lifespan and life course perspectives are needed that address mecha-nisms and boundary conditions of relationships between age and career attitudes, career decisions, and career success. For instance, in line with previous research (Edwards et al., 1974), future development of the circumscription and compromise theory of occupational aspirations (L. S. Gottfredson, 1981) could include age as a third dimension of the cognitive map of occupations, in addition to gender and social prestige. Scholars could also integrate this theory with socioemotional selectivity theory to explain how people’s interests to work in supportive occupations (e.g., teachers, therapists) may change with increasing age.

Another promising theoretical advancement in this area may be the use of boundaryless career theory (Sullivan & Arthur, 2006) to explain why and when employee age relates to physical and psychological career mobility. For example, employability may constitute a mediator and opportunities for personal growth outside of work may be a moderator in the negative relationship between age and physical mobility, as well as in the positive relationship between age and psychological mobility (see Segers et al., 2008). Additional mechanisms could be derived from lifespan theories. For instance, based on socioemotional selectivity theory, a lower future time perspective and the increased importance of positive emotions and close social contacts (Carstensen et al., 1999) may explain older employees’ decreased interest in physical mobility; in contrast, the use of selection, optimization, and compensation strategies (Baltes & Baltes, 1990) may strengthen the positive relationship between age and psychological mobility.

Future theoretical development could also rely on the life design perspective (Savickas et al., 2009) and consider individuals’ job and career transitions across the lifespan as opportunities to link their present with their past and future into a coherent narrative. For instance, future work could explain how the three life design mechanisms of identity, meaning, and mattering (Froidevaux, 2018) may evolve with age. Alternatively, these constructs could be conceived as person-related mechanisms in relationships between age and career outcomes. In particular, relying on socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen et al., 1999), one might expect a greater importance of mattering (i.e., the extent to which one perceives being important in the eyes of others; Froidevaux, Hirschi, & Wang, 2016) with age. Future work could further theorize on the relative importance of different age-related person and contextual mech-anisms as well as the interplay or fit between different mechanisms (Zacher, Feldman, & Schulz, 2014).

Second, it seems that most research on aging, work, and careers conducted over the past decades has adopted a life stage or lifespan perspective (Nagy et al., 2019), whereas the broader contextual factors emphasized by the life course perspective have been largely neglected. Indeed, Tomlinson et al. (2018) recently noted that, “…while the ‘life course’ term is well known, there are surprisingly few studies that genuinely and systematically apply the life course approach to careers and flexibility” (p. 17). Indeed, a relatively large number of studies has focused on the person-related mechanisms and boundary conditions of relationships between age and work and career outcomes, particularly performance. This emphasis is likely due to a focus on age-related changes in person characteristics in lifespan psychology (Baltes, 1987; Rudolph, 2016) and on the performance criterion in work psychology (Ng & Feldman, 2013b). Consistent with our framework, which extends models of successful aging at work by integrating broader contextual factors (e.g., education and retirement systems, labor law) based on the life course perspective, we recommend that future theory development draws on elements of both lifespan and life course perspectives and incorporates relevant person (agency) and contextual (structure) factors.

Accordingly, conceptual models on specific vocational topics could focus on age-related contextual factors (e.g., job/family de-mands, organizational policies and practices, factors in the institutional environment) that have been neglected. Existing models that include contextual factors focus on age and the job search process (Fasbender & Klehe, 2018), self-employment (Halvorsen & Morrow- Howell, 2017), and occupational well-being (Scheibe & Zacher, 2013). In line with previous research (Gordon & Arvey, 1986; Warr & Pennington, 1994), an interesting direction for future theoretical advancement could be to develop Super’s (1980) work and non-work roles (e.g., student, citizen, worker, spouse, parent) by explaining their interactions with age and other contextual characteristics (e.g.,

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

17

role demands and resources). Future models could also draw on recently proposed vocational theories guided by the life course perspective, for instance the theory of flexible careers (Moen & Sweet, 2004; Tomlinson et al., 2018), to examine how various environmental factors (e.g., institutional context, technological development, organizational policies, social roles) affect work and career outcomes at different ages.

Third and finally, further theory development is needed regarding interactive effects of age with other factors on work and career outcomes. Interestingly, almost 20 years ago, vocational behavior researchers already called for more research adopting person- context interactionist and lifespan/life course perspectives that focus on both psychological characteristics and social contexts and roles, as well as their interactions over time (Shanahan & Porfelli, 2002). Further theorizing and systematic empirical research efforts in this regard are still greatly needed, and our integrative framework could be used to advance this literature. For example, research could address which combinations of individual characteristics (e.g., abilities, needs, action-regulation strategies) and aspects of the work environment (e.g., demands, supplies) may be most beneficial in terms of work and career outcomes at different ages. In addition, extending research on opposite effects of age and job tenure on job satisfaction (Riza et al., 2018), theory development is needed to better distinguish the effects of chronological age from those of “alternative” age constructs (e.g., subjective age, future time perspective, work experience). For instance, future work could use a recently developed, multidimensional typology (i.e., generation, age, tenure, experience) of older workers (North, 2019) to further elaborate on the interactive effects between age and related con-structs on various work and career outcomes.

Novel theorizing could also rely on the perspective of (un)successful aging at work that explicitly focuses on interactive effects involving age. Specifically, it has been suggested that older workers, who attain more favorable work and career outcomes than the average age-related trends in these outcomes, are aging successfully, whereas lower than average outcomes indicate unsuccessful aging (Zacher, 2015). While the notion of successful aging at work and the theoretical framework outlined in this article represent broad conceptual structures, they do not specify exactly which person and/or contextual factors interact with age in predicting specific work and career outcomes (Zacher, Kooij, & Beier, 2018). Thus, more concrete theorizing is necessary that “matches” age-related differences or changes in individual characteristics (e.g., abilities, motives) with relevant person or contextual resources as well as relevant outcomes. For instance, drawing on socioemotional selectivity theory, a study matched age-related differences in feedback orientation with situational feedback characteristics, showing that effects of feedback favorability and delivery on feedback reactions were stronger for older employees, whereas the effect of feedback quality on reactions was stronger for younger employees (Wang et al., 2015).

4.2. Implications for empirical research

In this section, based on our theoretical framework and literature review, we outline three important needs for future empirical research. Specifically, scholars should (a) conduct further systematic research on neglected relationships between age and work and career outcomes, (b) study both age-related person and contextual mediators, as well as interactive effects of age and other factors on work and career outcomes, and (c) apply rigorous research methods and analytical strategies when studying the role of age for vocational behavior and development.

First, as summarized in Table 2, our review revealed that meta-analyses exist for several bivariate associations between age and important work and career outcomes (i.e., career adaptability, career success, job search, turnover, work motivation, performance, work attitudes, work values and motives, occupational health and well-being). In contrast, no systematic reviews or meta-analyses currently exist for the associations between age and the following career-related outcomes: vocational interests, mentoring, career mobility, protean and boundaryless career attitudes, and retirement. Furthermore, existing meta-analyses on relationships between age and career success, performance, and work attitudes could be updated. We thus call for systematic reviews and meta-analyses on these topics based on lifespan and life course perspectives.

Second, given the lack of theory on age-related mechanisms and interactions discussed above, it is not surprising that relatively few studies exist that simultaneously examined age-related person and contextual mediators, as well as interactive effects of age and other factors on work and career outcomes (for recent exceptions, see Fasbender, Burmeister, & Wang, 2020; Gielnik et al., 2018; Wang et al., 2015). Consistently, we did not identify any systematic reviews or meta-analyses that focus on age-related mechanisms. However, we found one systematic review and two meta-analyses on interactive effects between age and other factors on retirement, work attitudes and performance, and occupational health and well-being (Mühlenbrock & Hüffmeier, 2020; Ng & Feldman, 2015; Topa et al., 2009). Therefore, further research is needed that examines the person and contextual mechanisms explaining the relationships between age and the various work and career outcomes in our framework, as well as the interactive effects of age and other factors on career decisions and success, job search and turnover, work motivation, and career attitudes. Specific person factors based on the lifespan perspective may include occupational future time perspective and other age-related beliefs, as well as cognitive-behavioral strategies, such as selection, optimization, and compensation. In line with the life course perspective, concrete contextual factors may include institutional age discrimination, role demands and resources, organizational policies (Fasbender & Klehe, 2018), as well as technology and digitalization. For example, while technology use and digitalization at work may largely diminish cognitive job demands, it may favor either younger (e.g., by facilitating knowledge extraction) or older (e.g., by facilitating novel problem solving) workers (Salt-house, 2012).

To address this second empirical research need, it is important that future research adopts a multilevel approach to study asso-ciations between age and work and career outcomes, with potentially relevant predictors and moderators residing not only at the individual level, but also at the team, organizational, and societal levels. So far, only few studies have examined team- and organizational-level age constructs (e.g., Kunze & Menges, 2017), and even fewer studies have focused on cross-level interactions

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

18

involving age and higher-level constructs (e.g., Zacher & Yang, 2016). Future studies using such a multi-level perspective could include micro-level factors (e.g., short-term within-person experiences, more stable individuals traits, and agentic decision-making and strategy use), meso-level factors (e.g., job, team diversity, organizational characteristics), and macro-level factors (e.g., technology, labor law, and working time regulations; see Bronfenbrenner, 1979; Marcus, Rudolph, & Zacher, 2020).

Third, we echo recent calls to design studies that focus on mediators and moderators of associations between age and work and career outcomes, to use samples with appropriate numbers of participants from different age groups, and to adopt alternatives to cross- sectional and single-source designs (e.g., experiments, longitudinal studies; Bohlmann et al., 2018). For example, future studies could manipulate age-related beliefs (e.g., Griffin, Hesketh, & Loh, 2012) or conduct interventions to enhance participants’ knowledge and skills based on the lifespan perspective (e.g., Müller et al., 2018). Moreover, it is also important to operationalize age as a continuous variable, to routinely test curvilinear associations between age and other variables, and to control for other time-related (e.g., job tenure) constructs (Bohlmann et al., 2018).

5. Conclusion

In the context of an aging and increasingly age-diverse workforce, lifespan and life course perspectives on vocational behavior and development will become even more important in the next decades. To guide research in this area, we proposed an integrative theoretical framework and, based upon this framework, reviewed systematic research on aging, work, and careers, as well as articles published in JVB over the past five decades. Future theorizing on specific topics and research questions can use this framework to develop models that include concrete age-related mechanisms (including person-related and contextual factors) as well as interactive effects between age and other factors on work and career outcomes. Research that empirically tests these models has the potential to make important contributions to our understanding of the role of age for vocational behavior and development. A better understanding of how, why, and under which conditions individuals change with age and experience various outcomes will, in turn, have important practical implications for workers, career counselors, organizations, and policy makers.

CRediT authorship contribution statement

Hannes Zacher:Conceptualization, Methodology, Investigation, Data curation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing, Visualization, Project administration.Ariane Froidevaux:Conceptualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing.

Declaration of competing interest

None.

References

Ackerman, P. L., & Kanfer, R. (2020). Work in the 21st century: New directions for aging and adult development. American Psychologist, 75, 486–498. Adams, G. A. (1999). Career-related variables and planned retirement age: An extension of Beehr’s model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55, 221–235. Allen, T. D., Poteet, M. L., Russell, J. E. A., & Dobbins, G. H. (1997). A field study of factors related to supervisors’ willingness to mentor others. Journal of Vocational

Behavior, 50, 1–22. Arthur, M. B., & Rousseau, D. M. (1996). Introduction: The boundaryless career as a new employment principle. In The boundaryless career (pp. 3–20). New York:

Oxford University Press. Avery, D. R., McKay, P. F., & Wilson, D. C. (2007). Engaging the aging workforce: The relationship between perceived age similarity, satisfaction with coworkers, and

employee engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1542–1556. Bal, P. M., De Lange, A. H., Jansen, P. G. W., & Van der Velde, M. E. G. (2008). Psychological contract breach and job attitudes: A meta-analysis of age as a moderator.

Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72, 143–158. Bal, P. M., de Lange, A. H., Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Zacher, H., Oderkerk, F. A., & Otten, S. (2015). Young at heart, old at work? Relations between age, (meta-)

stereotypes, self-categorization, and retirement attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 91, 35–45. Baltes, P. B. (1987). Theoretical propositions of life-span developmental psychology: On the dynamics between growth and decline. Developmental Psychology, 23,

611–626. Baltes, P. B. (1997). On the incomplete architecture of human ontogeny: Selection, optimization, and compensation as foundation of developmental theory. American

Psychologist, 52, 366–380. Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (1990). Psychological perspectives on successful aging: The model of selective optimization with compensation. In P. B. Baltes, &

M. M. Baltes (Eds.), Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences (pp. 1–34). New York: Cambridge University Press. Baltes, P. B., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. M. (2006). Lifespan theory in developmental psychology. In W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child

psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (6th ed., pp. 569–664). New York: Wiley. Baltes, P. B., Reese, H. W., & Lipsitt, L. P. (1980). Life-span developmental psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 65–110. Baltes, P. B., Staudinger, U. M., & Lindenberger, U. (1999). Lifespan psychology: Theory and application to intellectual functioning. Annual Review of Psychology, 50,

471–507. Bamundo, P. J., & Kopelman, R. E. (1980). The moderating effects of occupation, age, and urbanization on the relationship between job satisfaction and life

satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 17, 106–123. Bedeian, A. G., Ferris, G. R., & Kacmar, K. M. (1992). Age, tenure, and job satisfaction: A tale of two perspectives. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 40, 33–48. Beier, M. E., Teachout, M. S., & Cox, C. B. (2012). The training and development of an aging workforce. In J. W. Hedge, & W. C. Borman (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of

work and aging (pp. 436–453). New York: Oxford University Press. Betz, N. E. (2001). Perspectives on future directions in vocational psychology. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59, 275–283. Biemann, T., Zacher, H., & Feldman, D. C. (2012). Career patterns: A twenty-year panel study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81, 159–170. Blau, G., & Lunz, M. (1998). Testing the incremental effect of professional commitment on intent to leave one’s profession beyond the effects of external, personal, and

work-related variables. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 52, 260–269. Bohlmann, C., Rudolph, C. W., & Zacher, H. (2018). Methodological recommendations to move research on work and aging forward. Work, Aging and Retirement, 4,

225–237.

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

19

Brandtstädter, J., & Renner, G. (1990). Tenacious goal pursuit and flexible goal adjustment: Explication and age-related analysis of assimilative and accomodative strategies of coping. Psychology and Aging, 5, 58–67.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Buengeler, C., Homan, A. C., & Voelpel, S. C. (2016). The challenge of being a young manager: The effects of contingent reward and participative leadership on team-

level turnover depend on leader age. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37, 1224–1245. Calo, T. J. (2005). The generativity track: A transitional approach to retirement. Public Personnel Management, 34, 301–312. Carless, S. A., & Arnup, J. L. (2011). A longitudinal study of the determinants and outcomes of career change. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 78, 80–91. Carstensen, L. L., Isaacowitz, D. M., & Charles, S. T. (1999). Taking time seriously: A theory of socioemotional selectivity. American Psychologist, 54, 165–181. Charles, S. T. (2010). Strength and vulnerability integration: A model of emotional well-being across adulthood. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 1068–1091. Cheramie, R. A., Sturman, M. C., & Walsh, K. (2007). Executive career management: Switching organizations and the boundaryless career. Journal of Vocational

Behavior, 71, 359–374. Cleveland, J. N., Festa, R. M., & Montgomery, L. (1988). Applicant pool composition and job perceptions: Impact on decisions regarding an older applicant. Journal of

Vocational Behavior, 32, 112–125. Cleveland, J. N., & Hollmann, G. (1990). The effects of the age-type of tasks and incumbent age composition on job perceptions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36,

181–194. Cleveland, J. N., Huebner, l.-A., Anderson, K. J., & Agbeke, D. V. (2019). Lifespan perspectives on job performance, performance appraisal/management and creative

performance. In B. B. Baltes, C. W. Rudolph, & H. Zacher (Eds.), Work across the lifespan (pp. 291–321). London, UK: Academic Press. Cron, W. L. (1984). Industrial salesperson development: A career stages perspective. Journal of Marketing, 48, 41–52. Dannefer, D. (2003). Cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the life course: Cross-fertilizing age and social science theory. Journals of Gerontology Series B:

Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58, 327–337. De Vos, A., Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., & Akkermans, J. (2020). Sustainable careers: Towards a conceptual model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 117, 103196. Doerwald, F., Scheibe, S., Zacher, H., & Van Yperen, N. W. (2016). Emotional competencies across adulthood: State of knowledge and implications for the work

context. Work, Aging and Retirement, 2, 159–216. Ebner, N. C., Freund, A. M., & Baltes, P. B. (2006). Developmental changes in personal goal orientation from young to late adulthood: From striving for gains to

maintenance and prevention of losses. Psychology and Aging, 21, 664–678. Eden, D., & Jacobson, D. (1976). Propensity to retire among older executives. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 8, 145–154. Edwards, K. J., Nafziger, D. H., & Holland, J. L. (1974). Differentiation of occupational perceptions among different age groups. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 4,

311–318. Elder, G. H. (1975). Age differentiation and the life course. Annual Review of Sociology, 1, 165–190. Entrekin, L. V., & Everett, J. E. (1981). Age, and midcareer crisis: An empirical study of academics. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 19, 84–97. Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York, NY: W. W. Norton. Fasbender, U., Burmeister, A., & Wang, M. (2020). Motivated to be socially mindful: Explaining age differences in the effect of employees’ contact quality with

coworkers on their coworker support. Personnel Psychology, 73, 407–430. Fasbender, U., & Deller, J. (2017). Career management over the life-span. In J. McCarthy, & E. Parry (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of age diversity and work (pp.

705–736). London: Palgrave-Macmillan. Fasbender, U., & Klehe, U. C. (2018). Job search and (re) employment from a lifespan development perspective. Work, Aging and Retirement, 5, 73–90. Feldman, D., & Ng, T. (2007). Careers: Mobility, embeddedness, and success. Journal of Management, 33, 350. Finkelstein, L. M., Allen, T. D., & Rhoton, L. A. (2003). An examination of the role of age in mentoring relationships. Group & Organization Management, 28, 249–281. Finkelstein, L. M., Allen, T. D., Ritchie, T. D., Lynch, J. E., & Montei, M. S. (2012). A dyadic examination of the role of relationship characteristics and age on

relationship satisfaction in a formal mentoring programme. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 21, 803–827. Fisher, G. G., Chaffee, D. S., Tetrick, L. E., Davalos, D. B., & Potter, G. G. (2017). Cognitive functioning, aging, and work: A review and recommendations for research

and practice. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22, 314–336. Ford, D. H., & Lerner, R. M. (1992). Developmental systems theory: An integrative approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Freund, A. M., & Ritter, J. O. (2009). Midlife crisis: A debate. Gerontology, 55, 582–591. Froidevaux, A. (2018). A life design perspective on the work to retirement transition. In V. Cohen-Scali, J. Rossier, & L. Nota (Eds.), New perspectives on career

counseling and guidance in Europe (pp. 89–104). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. Froidevaux, A., Hirschi, A., & Wang, M. (2016). The role of mattering as an overlooked key challenge in retirement planning and adjustment. Journal of Vocational

Behavior, 94, 57–69. Gielnik, M. M., Zacher, H., & Wang, M. (2018). Age in the entrepreneurial process: The role of future time perspective and prior entrepreneurial experience. Journal of

Applied Psychology, 103, 1067–1085. Gordon, R. A., & Arvey, R. D. (1986). Perceived and actual ages of workers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 28, 21–28. Gostautaite, B., & Buciuniene, I. (2015). Work engagement during life-span: The role of interaction outside the organization and task significance. Journal of

Vocational Behavior, 89, 109–119. Gottfredson, G. D., & Daiger, D. C. (1977). Using a classification of occupations to describe age, sex, and time differences in employment patterns. Journal of Vocational

Behavior, 10, 121–138. Gottfredson, L. S. (1981). Circumscription and compromise: A developmental theory of occupational aspirations. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28, 545–579. Gould, S. (1979). Age, job complexity, satisfaction, and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 209–223. Greller, M. M., & Stroh, L. K. (1995). Careers in midlife and beyond: A fallow field in need of sustenance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47, 232–247. Griffin, B., Hesketh, B., & Loh, V. (2012). The influence of subjective life expectancy on retirement transition and planning: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational

Behavior, 81, 129–137. Haines, V. Y., Doray-Demers, P., & Martin, V. (2018). Good, bad, and not so sad part-time employment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 104, 128–140. Hall, D. T. (1975). Pressures from work, self, and home in the life stages of married women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 6, 121–132. Hall, D. T. (2004). The protean career: A quarter-century journey. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 1–13. Hall, D. T., & Mirvis, P. H. (1995). The new career contract: Developing the whole person at midlife and beyond. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47, 269–289. Hall, D. T., & Moss, J. E. (1998). The new protean career contract: Helping organizations and employees adapt. Organizational Dynamics, 26, 22–37. Halvorsen, C. J., & Morrow-Howell, N. (2017). A conceptual framework on self-employment in later life: Toward a research agenda. Work, Aging and Retirement, 3,

313–324. Hansson, R. O., DeKoekkoek, P. D., Neece, W. M., & Patterson, D. W. (1997). Successful aging at work: Annual review, 1992-1996: The older worker and transitions to

retirement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51, 202–233. Hartung, P. J., Porfeli, E. J., & Vondracek, F. W. (2005). Child vocational development: A review and reconsideration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 385–419. Havighurst, R. J. (1948). Developmental tasks and education. New York: McKay. Heath, D. H. (1977). Some possible effects of occupation on the maturing of professional men. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 11, 263–281. Heckhausen, J., & Schulz, R. (1995). A life-span theory of control. Psychological Review, 102, 284–304. Heckhausen, J., Wrosch, C., & Schulz, R. (2010). A motivational theory of life-span development. Psychological Review, 117, 32–60. Hertel, G., Rauschenbach, C., Thielgen, M., & Krumm, S. (2015). Are older workers more active copers? Longitudinal effects of age-contingent coping on on strain at

work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36, 514–537. Hertel, G., & Zacher, H. (2018). Managing the aging workforce. In D. S. Ones, N. Anderson, C. Viswesvaran, & H. K. Sinangil (Eds.) (2nd ed.,, Vol. 3. The Sage handbook

of industrial, work and organizational psychology (pp. 396–428). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

20

Hertzog, C., Kramer, A. F., Wilson, R. S., & Lindenberger, U. (2009). Enrichment effects on adult cognitive development: Can the functional capacity of older adults be preserved and enhanced? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9, 1–65.

Hesketh, B., Watson-Brown, C., & Whiteley, S. (1998). Time-related discounting of value and decision-making about job options. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 52, 89–105.

Hirschi, A., Herrmann, A., Nagy, N., & Spurk, D. (2016). All in the name of work? Nonwork orientations as predictors of salary, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 95–96, 45–57.

Hirst, G., Yeo, G., Celestine, N., Lin, S. Y., & Richardson, A. (2020). It’s not just action but also about reflection: Taking stock of agency research to develop a future research agenda. Australian Journal of Management, 45, 376–401.

Huffman, A., Culbertson, S. S., Henning, J. B., & Goh, A. (2013). Work-family conflict across the lifespan. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28, 761–780. Ion, A., Nye, C. D., & Iliescu, D. (2019). Age and gender differences in the variability of vocational interests. Journal of Career Assessment, 27, 97–113. Jin, J., & Rounds, J. (2012). Stability and change in work values: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 326–339. Kattenbach, R., Schneidhofer, T. M., Lucke, J., Latzke, M., Loacker, B., Schramm, F., & Mayrhofer, W. (2014). A quarter of a century of job transitions in Germany.

Journal of Vocational Behavior, 84, 49–58. Katz, I. M., Rudolph, C. W., & Zacher, H. (2019). Age and career commitment: Meta-analytic tests of competing linear versus curvilinear relationships. Journal of

Vocational Behavior, 112, 396–416. Kooij, D. T. A. M., De Lange, A. H., Jansen, P. G. W., Kanfer, R., & Dikkers, J. S. E. (2011). Age and work-related motives: Results of a meta-analysis. Journal of

Organizational Behavior, 32, 197–225. Kooij, D. T. A. M., & Van De Voorde, K. (2011). How changes in subjective general health predict future time perspective, and development and generativity motives

over the lifespan. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84, 228–247. Kooij, D. T. A. M., Zacher, H., Wang, M., & Heckhausen, J. (2020). Successful aging at work: A process model to guide future research and practice. Industrial and

Organizational Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1017/iop.2020.1. Kunze, F., & Menges, J. I. (2017). Younger supervisors, older subordinates: An organizational-level study of age differences, emotions, and performance. Journal of

Organizational Behavior, 38, 461–486. Lawrence, B. S. (1984). Age grading: The implicit organizational timetable. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 5, 23–35. Leana, C. R., Mittal, V., & Stiehl, E. (2012). Organizational behavior and the working poor. Organization Science, 23, 888–906. Lerner, R. M., & Busch-Rossnagel, N. A. (1981). Individuals as producers of their development: A life-span perspective. New York: Academic Press. Levinson, D. J. (1986). A conception of adult development. American Psychologist, 41, 3–13. Levinson, D. J., Darrow, C. N., Klein, E. B., Levinson, M. H., & McKee, B. (1978). The seasons of a man’s life. New York: Ballantine Books. London, M., & Greller, M. M. (1991). Demographic trends and vocational behavior: A twenty year retrospective and agenda for the 1990s. Journal of Vocational

Behavior, 38, 125–164. Maertens, J. A., Putter, S. E., Chen, P. Y., Diehl, M., & Huang, Y.-H. (2012). Physical capabilities and occupational health of older workers. In J. W. Hedge, &

W. C. Borman (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of work and aging. New York: Oxford University Press. Mainiero, L. A., & Sullivan, S. E. (2005). Kaleidoscope careers: An alternate explanation for the “opt-out” revolution. Academy of Management Perspectives, 19,

106–123. Marcus, J., Rudolph, C. W., & Zacher, H. (2020). An ecological systems framework on work and aging. In D. L. Stone, J. H. Dulebohn, & K. M. Lukaszewski (Eds.),

Diversity and inclusion in organizations. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Matthews, R. A., Bulger, C. A., & Barnes-Farrell, J. L. (2010). Work social supports, role stressors, and work-family conflict: The moderating effect of age. Journal of

Vocational Behavior, 76, 78–90. Mayer, K. U. (2003). The sociology of the life course and lifespan psychology: Diverging or converging pathways? In U. M. Staudinger, & U. Lindenberger (Eds.),

Understanding human development: Dialogues with lifespan psychology (pp. 463–481). Boston, MA: Springer. Mayer, K. U. (2009). New directions in life course research. Annual Review of Sociology, 35, 423–424. Moen, P., & Sweet, S. (2002). Two careers, one employer: Couples working for the same corporation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 466–483. Moen, P., & Sweet, S. (2004). From ‘work–family’ to ‘flexible careers’ a life course reframing. Community, Work & Family, 7, 209–226. Moore, M. E., Konrad, A. M., Yang, Y., Ng, E. S. W., & Doherty, A. J. (2011). The vocational well-being of workers with childhood onset of disability: Life satisfaction

and perceived workplace discrimination. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79, 681–698. Morris, M. L. (2016). Vocational interests in the United States: Sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63, 604–615. Mühlenbrock, I., & Hüffmeier, J. (2020). Differential work design for different age groups? A systematic literature review of the moderating role of age in the relation

between psychosocial work characteristics and health. Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 64, 171–195. Müller, A., Angerer, P., Becker, A., Gantner, M., Gündel, H., Heiden, B., … Maatouk, I. (2018). Bringing successful aging theories to occupational practice: Is selective

optimization with compensation (SOC) trainable? Work, Aging and Retirement, 4, 161–174. Mumford, M. D. (1984). Age and outstanding occupational achievement: Lehman revisited. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 25, 225–244. Munyon, T. P., Madden, L. T., Madden, T. M., & Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2019). (Dys)functional attachments?: How community embeddedness impacts workers during and

after long-term unemployment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 112, 35–50. Nagy, N., Froidevaux, A., & Hirschi, A. (2019). Lifespan perspectives on careers and career development. In B. B. Baltes, C. W. Rudolph, & H. Zacher (Eds.), Work

across the lifespan (pp. 235–259). London, United Kingdom: Academic Press. Ng, T. W. H., Eby, L. T., Sorensen, K. L., & Feldman, D. C. (2005). Predictors of objective and subjective career success: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 58,

367–409. Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2008a). Can you get a better deal elsewhere? The effects of psychological contract replicability on organizational commitment over

time. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73, 268–277. Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2008b). The relationship of age to ten dimensions of job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 392–423. Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2009). Re-examining the relationship between age and voluntary turnover. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74, 283–294. Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2010a). Idiosyncratic deals and organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 419–427. Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2010b). The relationship of age with job attitudes: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 63, 667–718. Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2012). Evaluating six common stereotypes about older workers with meta-analytical data. Personnel Psychology, 65, 821–858. Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2013a). Employee age and health. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83, 336–345. Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2013b). How do within-person changes due to aging affect job performance? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83, 500–513. Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2013c). A meta-analysis of the relationships of age and tenure with innovation-related behaviour. Journal of Occupational and

Organizational Psychology, 86, 585–616. Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2015). The moderating effects of age in the relationships of job autonomy to work outcomes. Work, Aging and Retirement, 1, 64–78. North, M. S. (2019). A GATE to understanding “older” workers: Generation, age, tenure, experience. Academy of Management Annals, 13, 414–443. Nye, C., & Roberts, B. W. (2019). A neo-socioanalytic model of personality development. In B. B. Baltes, C. W. Rudolph, & H. Zacher (Eds.), Work across the lifespan

(pp. 47–79). London, United Kingdom: Academic Press. O’Rand, A. (1996). The precious and the precocious: Understanding cumulative disadvantage and cumulative advantage over the life course. The Gerontologist, 36,

230. Ornstein, S., & Isabella, L. (1990). Age vs stage models of career attitudes of women: A partial replication and extension. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 1–19. Osipow, S. H., Doty, R. E., & Spokane, A. R. (1985). Occupational stress, strain, and coping across the life span. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 27, 98–108. Pavlova, M. K., & Silbereisen, R. K. (2014). Coping with occupational uncertainty and formal volunteering across the life span. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85,

93–105.

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

21

Perdrix, S., Stauffer, S., Masdonati, J., Massoudi, K., & Rossier, J. (2012). Effectiveness of career counseling: A one-year follow-up. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 565–578.

Pond, S. B., & Geyer, P. D. (1991). Differences in the relation between job satisfaction and perceived work alternatives among older and younger blue-collar workers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 39, 251–262.

Posthuma, R. A., & Campion, M. A. (2009). Age stereotypes in the workplace: Common stereo-types, moderators, and future research directions. Journal of Management, 35, 158–188.

Rauschenbach, C., Krumm, S., Thielgen, M. M., & Hertel, G. (2013). Age and work-related stress: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28, 781–804.

Riza, S. D., Ganzach, Y., & Liu, Y. (2018). Time and job satisfaction: A longitudinal study of the differential roles of age and tenure. Journal of Management, 44, 2558–2579.

Roberts, B. W., Walton, K. E., & Viechtbauer, W. (2006). Patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 1–25.

Roberts, B. W., & Wood, D. (2006). Personality development in the context of the neo-Socioanalytic model of personality. In D. K. Mroczek, & T. D. Little (Eds.), Handbook of personality development (pp. 11–39). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrance Erlbaum Associates.

Rodrigues, F. R., Cunha, M. P., Castanheira, F., Bal, P. M., & Jansen, P. G. (2020). Person-job fit across the work lifespan–the case of classical ballet dancers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 118, 103400.

Rohe, D. E., & Krause, J. S. (1998). Stability of interests after severe physical disability: An 11-year longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 52, 45–58. Rudolph, C. W. (2016). Lifespan developmental perspectives on working: A literature review of motivational theories. Work, Aging and Retirement, 2, 130–158. Rudolph, C. W., Kooij, D. T. A. M., Rauvola, R. S., & Zacher, H. (2018). Occupational future time perspective: A meta-analysis of antencedents and outcomes. Journal

of Organizational Behavior, 39, 229–248. Rudolph, C. W., Lavigne, K. N., & Zacher, H. (2017). Career adaptability: A meta-analysis of relationships with measures of adaptivity, adapting, responses, and

adaptation results. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 98, 17–34. Rudolph, C. W., Rauvola, R. S., Costanza, D. P., & Zacher, H. (2020). Answers to 10 questions about “generations” and “generational differences.”. Public Policy &

Aging Report. https://doi.org/10.1093/ppar/praa010. Rudolph, C. W., & Zacher, H. (2017). Considering generations from a lifespan developmental perspective. Work, Aging and Retirement, 3, 113–129. Rudolph, C. W., & Zacher, H. (2019). Managing employees across the lifespan. In B. Hoffman, M. Shoss, & L. Wegman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of the changing

nature of work. Cambridge University Press. Russell, J. E. A., & Rush, M. C. (1987). A comparative study of age-related variation in women’s views of a career in management. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30,

280–294. Sabelis, I., & Schilling, E. A. (2013). Frayed careers: Exploring rhythms of working lives. Gender, Work and Organization, 20, 127–132. Salmela-Aro, K., & Upadyaya, K. (2018). Role of demands-resources in work engagement and burnout in different career stages. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 108,

190–200. Salthouse, T. A. (2012). Consequences of age-related cognitive declines. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 201–226. Savickas, M. L. (1997). Career adaptability: An integrative construct for life-span, life-space theory. Career Development Quarterly, 45, 247–259. Savickas, M. L. (2001). The next decade in vocational psychology: Mission and objectives. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59, 284–290. Savickas, M. L. (2002). Reinvigorating the study of careers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 381–385. Savickas, M. L., Nota, L., Rossier, J., Dauwalder, J.-P., Duarte, M. E., Guichard, J., … van Vianen, A. E. M. (2009). Life designing: A paradigm for career construction in

the 21st century. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 239–250. Scheibe, S., & Zacher, H. (2013). A lifespan perspective on emotion regulation, stress, and well-being in the workplace. In P. L. Perrewé, J. Halbesleben, & C. C. Rosen

(Eds.), Vol. 11. Research in occupational stress and well-being (pp. 167–197). Bingley, UK: Emerald. Schooler, C., Mulatu, M. S., & Oates, G. (1999). The continuing effects of substantively complex work on the intellectual functioning of older workers. Psychology and

Aging, 14, 483–506. Schwab, D. P., & Heneman, H. G. (1977). Age and satisfaction with dimensions of work. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 10, 212–220. Schwall, A. R. (2012). Defining age and using age-relevant constructs. In J. W. Hedge, & W. C. Borman (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of work and aging (pp. 169–186).

New York: Oxford University Press. Segers, J., Inceoglu, I., Vloeberghs, D., Bartram, D., & Henderickx, E. (2008). Protean and boundaryless careers: A study on potential motivators. Journal of Vocational

Behavior, 73, 212–230. Settersten, R. A. (2017). Some things I have learned about aging by studying the life course. Innovation in Aging, 1, 1–7. Settersten, R. A., & Mayer, K. U. (1997). The measurement of age, age structuring, and the life course. Annual Review of Sociology, 23, 233–261. Shanahan, M. J., & Porfelli, E. (2002). Integrating the life course and life-span: Formulating research questions with dual points of entry. Journal of Vocational

Behavior, 61, 398–406. Shepard, W. O., & Hess, D. T. (1975). Attitudes in four age groups toward sex role division in adult occupations and activities. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 6, 27–39. Siegel, J. P., & Ghiselli, E. E. (1971). Managerial talent, pay, and age. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1, 129–135. Simpson, P. A., Greller, M. M., & Stroh, L. K. (2002). Variations in human capital investment activity by age. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 109–138. Smart, R., & Peterson, C. (1994). Stability versus transition in women’s career development: A test of Levinson’ s theory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45, 241–260. Staudinger, U. M. (2020). The positive plasticity of adult development: Potential for the 21st century. American Psychologist, 75, 540–553. Sterns, H. L., & Harrington, A. K. (2019). Lifespan perspectives on learning and training. In B. B. Baltes, C. W. Rudolph, & H. Zacher (Eds.), Work across the lifespan (pp.

323–341). London, UK: Academic Press. Sterns, H. L., & Miklos, S. M. (1995). The aging worker in a changing environment: Organizational and individual issues. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47, 248–268. Sullivan, S. E., & Arthur, M. B. (2006). The evolution of the boundaryless career concept: Exa-mining physical and psychological mobility. Journal of Vocational

Behavior, 69, 19–29. Super, D. E. (1953). A theory of vocational development. American Psychologist, 8, 185–190. Super, D. E. (1980). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 16, 282–298. Sverko, B., Galic, Z., Sersic, D. M., & Galesic, M. (2008). Unemployed people in search of a job: Reconsidering the role of search behavior. Journal of Vocational

Behavior, 72, 415–428. Swanson, J. L. (1992). Vocational behavior, 1989–1991: Life-span career development and reci-procal interaction of work and nonwork. Journal of Vocational

Behavior, 41, 101–161. Swanson, J. L., & Hansen, J. I. C. (1988). Stability of vocational interests over 4-year, 8-year, and 12-year intervals. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 33, 185–202. Swider, B. W., Zimmerman, R. D., Charlier, S. D., & Pierotti, A. J. (2015). Deep-level and surface-level individual differences and applicant attraction to organizations:

A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 88, 73–83. Tomlinson, J., Baird, M., Berg, P., & Cooper, R. (2018). Flexible careers across the life course: Advancing theory, research and practice. Human Relations, 71, 4–22. Topa, G., Depolo, M., & Alcover, C.-M. (2018). Early retirement: A meta-analysis of its antecedent and subsequent correlates. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 2157. Topa, G., Moriano, J. A., Depolo, M., Alcover, C. M., & Morales, J. F. (2009). Antecedents and consequences of retirement planning and decision-making: A meta-

analysis and model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 38–55. Tordera, N., Peiró, J. M., Ayala, Y., Villajos, E., & Truxillo, D. (2020). The lagged influence of organizations’ human resources practices on employees’ career

sustainability: The moderating role of age. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 120, Article 103444. Tracey, T. J., Robbins, S. B., & Hofsess, C. D. (2005). Stability and change in interests: A longitudinal study of adolescents from grades 8 through 12. Journal of

Vocational Behavior, 66, 1–25.

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021) 103476

22

Truxillo, D. M., Cadiz, D. M., & Hammer, L. B. (2015). Supporting the aging workforce: A research review and recommendations for workplace intervention research. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 2, 351–381.

Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., de Lange, A. H., Demerouti, E., & Van der Heijde, C. M. (2009). Age effects on the employability-career success relationship. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74, 156–164.

Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., & De Vos, A. (2015). Sustainable careers: Introductory chapter. In A. De Vos, & B. I. J. M. Van der Heijden (Eds.), Handbook of research on sustainable careers (pp. 1–19). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Peeters, M. C. W., Le Blanc, P. M., & Van Breukelen, J. W. M. (2018). Job characteristics and experience as predictors of occupational turnover intention and occupational turnover in the European nursing sector. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 108, 108–120.

Van der Horst, A. C., Klehe, U. C., & Van der Heijden, B. (2017). Adapting to a looming career transition: How age and core individual differences interact. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 99, 132–145.

Vansteenkiste, S., Deschacht, N., & Sels, L. (2015). Why are unemployed aged fifty and over less likely to find a job? A decomposition analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 90, 55–65.

Vondracek, F. W. (2001). The developmental perspective in vocational psychology. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59, 252–261. Vondracek, F. W., & Hartung, P. J. (2002). Introduction: Innovating career development using advances in life course and life-span theory. Journal of Vocational

Behavior, 61, 375–380. Vondracek, F. W., & Porfeli, E. (2002). Integrating person- and function-centered approaches in career development theory and research. Journal of Vocational

Behavior, 61, 386–397. Wanberg, C. R., Kanfer, R., Hamann, D. J., & Zhang, Z. (2016). Age and reemployment success after job loss: An integrative model and meta-analysis. Psychological

Bulletin, 142, 400–426. Wang, M., Burlacu, G., Truxillo, D., James, K. S., & Yao, X. (2015). Age differences in feedback reactions: The roles of employee feedback orientation on social

awareness and utility. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100, 1296–1308. Wang, M., & Shultz, K. S. (2010). Employee retirement: A review and recommendations for future investigation. Journal of Management, 36, 172–206. Warr, P., & Pennington, J. (1994). Occupational age-grading: Jobs for older and younger nonmanagerial employees. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45, 328–346. Wayne, J. H. (2000). Disentangling the power bases of sexual harassment: Comparing gender, age, and position power. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 57, 301–325. Wiernik, B. M., Dilchert, S., & Ones, D. S. (2016). Age and employee green behaviors: A meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 194. Wohlwill, J. F. (1970). The age variable in psychological research. Psychological Review, 77, 49–64. Woods, S. A., Wille, B., Wu, C. H., Lievens, F., & De Fruyt, F. (2019). The influence of work on personality trait development: The demands-affordances TrAnsactional

(DATA) model, an integrative review, and research agenda. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 110, 258–271. Yaldiz, L. M., Truxillo, D. M., Bodner, T., & Hammer, L. B. (2018). Do resources matter for employee stress? It depends on how old you are. Journal of Vocational

Behavior, 107, 182–194. Yang, W. N., Johnson, S., & Niven, K. (2018). “That’s not what I signed up for!” a longitudinal investigation of the impact of unmet expectation and age in the relation

between career plateau and job attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 107, 71–85. Zacher, H. (2013). Older job seekers’ job search intensity: The interplay of proactive personality, age, and occupational future time perspective. Ageing & Society, 33,

1139–1166. Zacher, H. (2015). Successful aging at work. Work, Aging and Retirement, 1, 4–25. Zacher, H., Feldman, D. C., & Schulz, H. (2014). Age, occupational strain, and well-being: A person-environment fit perspective. In P. L. Perrewé, J. Halbesleben, &

C. C. Rosen (Eds.), Vol. 12. Research in occupational stress and well-being (pp. 83–111). Bingley, UK: Emerald. Zacher, H., & Griffin, B. (2015). Older workers’ age as a moderator of the relationship between career adaptability and job satisfaction. Work, Aging and Retirement, 1,

227–236. Zacher, H., Heusner, S., Schmitz, M., Zwierzanska, M. M., & Frese, M. (2010). Focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationships between age, job complexity,

and work performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 374–386. Zacher, H., Feldman, D. C., & Schulz, H. (2014). Age, occupational strain, and well-being: A person-environment fit perspective. In P L Perrewé, J Halbesleben, & C

C Rosen (Eds.), Research in occupational stress and well-being (Vol. 12, pp. 83–111). Bingley, UK: Emerald. Zacher, H., Jimmieson, N. L., & Bordia, P. (2014). Time pressure and coworker support mediate the curvilinear relationship between age and occupational well-being.

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19, 462–475. Zacher, H., Kooij, D. T. A. M., & Beier, M. E (2018). Active aging at work: Contributing factors and implications for organizations. Organizational Dynamics, 47, 37–45. Zacher, H., & Rudolph, C. W. (2019). Just a mirage: On the incremental predictive validity of subjective age. Work, Aging and Retirement, 5, 141–162. Zacher, H., Rudolph, C. W., & Baltes, B. B. (2019). An invitation to lifespan thinking. In B. B. Baltes, C. W. Rudolph, & H. Zacher (Eds.), Work across the lifespan (pp.

1–14). London, UK: Academic Press. Zacher, H., Rudolph, C. W., Todorovic, T., & Ammann, D. (2019). Academic career develop-ment: A review and research agenda. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 110,

357–373. Zacher, H., & Schmitt, A. (2016). Work characteristics and occupational well-being: The role of age. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1411. Zacher, H., & Yang, J. (2016). Organizational climate for successful aging. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1007. Zaniboni, S., Truxillo, D. M., Rineer, J. R., Bodner, T. E., Hammer, L. B., & Krainer, M. (2016). Relating age, decision authority, job satisfaction, and mental health: A

study of construction workers. Work, Aging and Retirement, 2, 428–435.

H. Zacher and A. Froidevaux

  • Life stage, lifespan, and life course perspectives on vocational behavior and development: A theoretical framework, review, …
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Theoretical background
      • 2.1 Life stage, lifespan, and life course perspectives
      • 2.2 Vocational theories based on life stage, lifespan, and life course perspectives
      • 2.3 Integrative theoretical framework
    • 3 Literature review
      • 3.1 Search process and inclusion/exclusion criteria
      • 3.2 Relationships between age and work and career outcomes
        • 3.2.1 Career decisions and success
          • 3.2.1.1 Vocational interests
          • 3.2.1.2 Engagement in training and development activities
          • 3.2.1.3 Mentoring
          • 3.2.1.4 Career mobility
          • 3.2.1.5 Career adaptability
          • 3.2.1.6 Retirement
          • 3.2.1.7 Career success
        • 3.2.2 Job search and turnover
        • 3.2.3 Work motivation and behavior
        • 3.2.4 Work and career attitudes
          • 3.2.4.1 Work attitudes
          • 3.2.4.2 Career attitudes
          • 3.2.4.3 Job satisfaction
          • 3.2.4.4 Work values and motives
          • 3.2.4.5 Other work attitudes
        • 3.2.5 Occupational health and well-being
        • 3.2.6 Summary
      • 3.3 Person and contextual mechanisms of relationships between age and outcomes
        • 3.3.1 Person-related mechanisms
          • 3.3.1.1 Career decisions and success
          • 3.3.1.2 Job search and turnover
          • 3.3.1.3 Work motivation and behavior
          • 3.3.1.4 Work and career attitudes
          • 3.3.1.5 Occupational health and well-being
        • 3.3.2 Contextual mechanisms
          • 3.3.2.1 Career decisions and success
          • 3.3.2.2 Job search and turnover
          • 3.3.2.3 Work motivation and behavior
          • 3.3.2.4 Work and career attitudes
          • 3.3.2.5 Occupational health and well-being
        • 3.3.3 Summary
      • 3.4 Interactive effects of age with person characteristics, contextual characteristics, and/or work and career outcomes
        • 3.4.1 Career decisions and success
          • 3.4.1.1 Career decisions
          • 3.4.1.2 Career success
          • 3.4.1.3 Retirement
        • 3.4.2 Job search and turnover
        • 3.4.3 Work motivation and behavior
        • 3.4.4 Work and career attitudes
        • 3.4.5 Occupational health and well-being
        • 3.4.6 Summary
    • 4 Agenda for future research
      • 4.1 Implications for theory development
      • 4.2 Implications for empirical research
    • 5 Conclusion
    • CRediT authorship contribution statement
    • Declaration of competing interest
    • References

How it Works

  1. Clіck оn the “Place оrder tab at the tоp menu оr “Order Nоw” іcоn at the bоttоm, and a new page wіll appear wіth an оrder fоrm tо be fіlled.
  2. Fіll іn yоur paper’s іnfоrmatіоn and clіck “PRІCE CALCULATІОN” at the bоttоm tо calculate yоur оrder prіce.
  3. Fіll іn yоur paper’s academіc level, deadlіne and the requіred number оf pages frоm the drоp-dоwn menus.
  4. Clіck “FІNAL STEP” tо enter yоur regіstratіоn detaіls and get an accоunt wіth us fоr recоrd keepіng.
  5. Clіck оn “PRОCEED TО CHECKОUT” at the bоttоm оf the page.
  6. Frоm there, the payment sectіоns wіll shоw, fоllоw the guіded payment prоcess, and yоur оrder wіll be avaіlable fоr оur wrіtіng team tо wоrk оn іt.

Nоte, оnce lоgged іntо yоur accоunt; yоu can clіck оn the “Pendіng” buttоn at the left sіdebar tо navіgate, make changes, make payments, add іnstructіоns оr uplоad fіles fоr the оrder created. e.g., оnce lоgged іn, clіck оn “Pendіng” and a “pay” оptіоn wіll appear оn the far rіght оf the оrder yоu created, clіck оn pay then clіck оn the “Checkоut” оptіоn at the next page that appears, and yоu wіll be able tо cоmplete the payment.

Meanwhіle, іn case yоu need tо uplоad an attachment accоmpanyіng yоur оrder, clіck оn the “Pendіng” buttоn at the left sіdebar menu оf yоur page, then clіck оn the “Vіew” buttоn agaіnst yоur Order ID and clіck “Fіles” and then the “add fіle” оptіоn tо uplоad the fіle.

Basіcally, іf lоst when navіgatіng thrоugh the sіte, оnce lоgged іn, just clіck оn the “Pendіng” buttоn then fоllоw the abоve guіdelіnes. оtherwіse, cоntact suppоrt thrоugh оur chat at the bоttоm rіght cоrner

NB

Payment Prоcess

By clіckіng ‘PRОCEED TО CHECKОUT’ yоu wіll be lоgged іn tо yоur accоunt autоmatіcally where yоu can vіew yоur оrder detaіls. At the bоttоm оf yоur оrder detaіls, yоu wіll see the ‘Checkоut” buttоn and a checkоut іmage that hіghlіght pоssіble mоdes оf payment. Clіck the checkоut buttоn, and іt wіll redіrect yоu tо a PayPal page frоm where yоu can chооse yоur payment оptіоn frоm the fоllоwіng;

  1. Pay wіth my PayPal accоunt‘– select thіs оptіоn іf yоu have a PayPal accоunt.
  2. Pay wіth a debіt оr credіt card’ or ‘Guest Checkout’ – select thіs оptіоn tо pay usіng yоur debіt оr credіt card іf yоu dоn’t have a PayPal accоunt.
  3. Dо nоt fоrget tо make payment sо that the оrder can be vіsіble tо оur experts/tutоrs/wrіters.

Regards,

Custоmer Suppоrt

Order Solution Now