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1) Social/Emotional Development

According to the observation: “The teacher instructs the kids to go to their cubbies and pick their crayons. While the other kids are busy picking their crayons, Lili on the other hand has her head on the desk that she is seating on.”

Between 3 to 5 years old kids are on “initiative vs. guilt” Erikson stage three. Curiosity and fantasy, contribute to the formation of initiative, expanding the boundaries of independence, the development of creative abilities. Lili is not interested in the activity that has been given to her. Maybe close adults who severely restrict freedom of choice, overly controlling and punishing Lili cause her too much guilt. Guilt-ridden Lili is passive, constrained, and in the future have little ability for productive work.

According to the observation: “after a small talk back and forth of trying to convince Lili to go pick up the crayons, she finally gets up unwillingly putting her head downs and goes to the cubbies to pick up the crayons as instructed by the teacher.”

According to The Theory of Attachment by J. Bowlby, if the mother is not attentive and caring enough to the child if she is too cold and strict, he develops an insecure attachment and a feeling of insecurity and vulnerability associated with it. If his attachment is unreliable or insecure, he treats himself as rejected, unloved, incapable of anything, and the object of his attachment becomes a source of fear and danger. The quality of a child’s attachment to his mother affects school success, the solution of social and cognitive problems, relationships with peers, and the success of adaptation to the social environment. Most likely, Lili has a bad relationship with her mother at home, so she does not show interest in anything new in the learning process. Lili has low self-esteem and is suspicious and fearful. Emotional intelligence is also not developind very well. Because of this, Lili may become dependent on a stronger personality in the future. Also Lili doesn’t trust others. Her emotional state is unstable. The mood often changes because she has to attract the attention of others.

2) Cognitive Development

According to the observation: “The kids start reading each word in the booklet aloud, Lili still seems to be confused and keeps looking around while other kids are reading the words aloud. The teacher calls on Lili and tells her to read the next word on the line, Lili goes ahead and answers that “I don’t know where we are?” the assistant teacher approaches her and sits next to her, she specifically shows her where the rest of the class is in the process of reading the booklet. Lili begins to read out the words aloud. Lili is able to pronounce and sound out each word that she is instructed to read.”

According to Vygotsky’s Developmental Theory “the zone of proximal development” is determined by the content of those tasks that the child cannot yet solve on his own, but is already carrying out with the help of an adult. Lili is on ZPD because after the assistant teacher helped her to find out what to do, Lili coped with the task without problems.

According to Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development “preoperational stage” is the second of four stages and lasts from two to six years, around the time a child starts school. One of the key features of the preoperative stage is that it marks the time when the child begins to acquire language, which marks a significant shift in the functioning of the human brain. Lili is in the preoperational stage. She is able to pronounce and sound out each word.

3) Learning Developmental

According to the observation: “The teacher tells students to put their crayons and books away and seat upright as they are going to start the next part of the lesson. Lili seems to be distracted and does not listen to the teacher. I approach Lili and tell her to put her book and crayons away and sit upright. I specifically tell Lili that if she does not follow the instructions given by the teacher and does not do the tasks given to her, then she will not play outside with the other kids during the break time. Lili then becomes stiller and seats upright.”

According to Bandura’s “Social Learning Theory,” the principle of “The importance of motivation” Lili focused on the task when she understood that after she will be doing what the teacher says (to put crayons and books away and seat upright) she gets the rewards, which is outside playing. This is motivated her to followed directions. Using a positive reinforcement system, Lili understood that her good behavior will result in positive consequences such as rewards. This teaches her the value of self-discipline and personal responsibility. Observing other students gives Lily an idea of how the new behavior is performed, and subsequently this encoded information serves as a guide for actions. It also develops self-sufficiency in Lili, which will allow her to independently achieve the desired result (goal).

Rewording is essential to achieve any goals of the students. According to Skinner’s “Operant conditioning and positive reinforcement” desired and voluntary behavior is taught through the use of positive and negative stimuli. Through a system of rewards and punishments, people establish a connection between a particular behavior and its consequences. The association of behavior with a reward or punishment leads to a change in the strength of the behavior. Operant conditioning is the influence of the consequences of behavior on the behavior itself, the consequences are understood as changes in the environment (change in stimulus) that occur immediately after the behavior and affect the frequency of occurrence of this behavior in the future This process is similar to Darwinian natural selection in that behavior is selected for its consequences during the life of an individual, much as species are selected for their survival consequences during evolution. Rewarding to go outside with other kids stimulated Lili to follow the teacher’s directions. Lily realized that if she followed instructions and obeyed, then it would only benefit her. The teacher asks her to follow directions for her own good. In the future, this experience will help Lili to adapt to the new things easier and faster.

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