1. Individual decision making is a good approach when:

A. The leader has enough expertise to make a good decision.

B. The decision is complex with many possible solutions.

C. Commitment to the decision by other people is critical.

D. The decision will directly impact many agencies, individuals, or community members.

2. A poor decision with ethical implications can escalate an emergency into an unmanageable situation.

A. TRUE

B. FALSE

3. When applying the problem-solving model to ethical solutions, be sure to consider:

A. Stakeholder needs and values.

B. Private gain.

C. Evacuation priorities.

D. Individual compliance.

4. A common operating picture ____________ decision making in a crisis.

A. Follows

B. Destabilizes

C. Promotes

D. Impedes

5. Which of the following is an advantage of group decision making?

A. It tends to limit discussion of the problem.

B. It is more likely to be influenced by a vocal few.

C. It provides a broader perspective and taps a wider range of expertise.

D. It is successful when time is limited and leadership is absent.

6. Which of the following factors can impede decision making in an incident?

A. Clear values

B. Focus on the big picture

C. Validated information

D. Time pressure

7. When selecting group members for problem solving, it is more effective to include people who:

A. Have a stake in the outcome.

B. Are homogeneous in makeup.

C. Have limited decision-making authority.

D. Represent jurisdictions with no stake in the outcome.

8. The initial step of the five-step problem-solving model is to:

A. Identify the problem.

B. Clarify values.

C. Develop an approach.

D. Explore alternatives

9. Decision makers should determine who is affected by an emergency during this step of the problem-solving process.

A. Select an alternative.

B. Implement the soution.

C. Make a decision.

D. Identify the problem.

10. Failure to verify information can lead to:

A. Good decisions.

B. Poor decisions.

C. Group decisions.

D. Individual decisions.

11. During which step of the problem-solving model should you eliminate alteratives that appear unethical.

A. Identify the problem.

B. Implement the solution.

C. Select an alternative.

D. Make a decision.

12. When selecting a solution in an ethical situation, be sure to consider:

A. Personal compliance.

B. Your values and those of your organization.

C. The community’s taxholder base.

D. All possible solutions, regardless of how they appear ethically.

13. An effective decision maker should:

A. Make decisions based solely on financial and environmental factors.

B. Promote groupthink to evaluate potential solutions.

C. Have a clear view of values and keep them in mind at each step of the process.

D. Rely on primary sources of information and avoid secondary sources when making decisions.

14. Which of the following factors can impede decision making in an incident?

A. Fatigue and stress.

B. Common operating picture.

C. Forming smaller groups.

D. Common priorities.

15. The decision-making for emergencies process should begin:

A. After an emergency operations center has been established.

B. During the execution phase of the decision-making cycle.

C. Well before any emergency strikes.

D. Under emergency conditions.

16. Ethical dilemmas can complicate decisions where there is no legal precedent or established procedures.

A. TRUE

B. FALSE

17. Effective decision making in an emergency results in the following, EXCEPT FOR:

A. Quicker recovery time from the emergency event.

B. Better management of the incident.

C. Increased trust and support from the community.

D. Increased risk of injury to victims or responders.

18. The number and magnitude of decisions and problems that must be addressed during an emergency are a direct outgrowth of:

A. The steps of the problem-solving model.

B. Decisions that were or were not made during the planning process.

C. The size of the decision-making group.

D. The length of the execution phase of the decision-making cycle.

19. Under stress, decision makers are more likely to:

A. Exhibit poor judgment.

B. Focus on longer range alternatives.

C. Avoid conflict with other key players.

D. Engage with other key players for longer periods of time.

20. A key characteristic of effective problem-solving groups is their:

A. Large size.

B. Duplication of function.

C. Emphasis on unanimous agreement.

D. Diverse makeup.

21. Which of the following is a limitation of group decision making?

A. It requires adequate time and good leadership to be successful.

B. It unleashes the creative potential of team members in developing alternatives.

C. It reduces the use of discussion in order to lessen uncertainties.

D. It reduces ownership and buy-in.

22. An effective decision maker ensures quality information by:

A. Validating information to be true and accurate.

B. Defending baseline data from reports received from other sources.

C. Avoiding secondary sources of information.

D. Discounting conflicting opinions.

23. A problem-solving model helps to minimize impediments to decision making and the impact of stress.

A. TRUE

B. FALSE

24. The steps of the analytical problem-solving model include: identifying the problem, exploring alternatives, ___________, implementing a solution, and evaluating the situation.

A. Analyzing the situation.

B. Identifying the stakeholders.

C. Selecting alternatives.

D. Building an implementation plan.

25. Using the five-step problem-solving model, after selecting an alternative, the next step is to:

A. Explore alternatives.

B. Identify the problem.

C. Implement the solution.

D. Assess the situation

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