Heart;Blood Vessels

   Anterior cross section showing the valves and chambers of the heart
What blood-tight partition divides the left heart from the right heart?

Which portion of the ECG represents a small deflection sometimes seen just after the T wave, representing the final phase of ventricular repolarization?

Does heart size increase or decrease with age? why?
Make a chart describing the characteristics of the following types of chest pain:

  1. Angina
  2. Esophageal
  3. Pain from a peptic ulcer
  4. Biliary
  5. Arthritis or bursitis
  6. Cervical
  7. Musculoskeletal (chest)
  8. Psychoneurotic

A patient is complaining of prolonged fever, signs of neurologic dysfunctions, and the sudden onset of congestive heart failure. What should be expected?

Name the five traditionally designated auscultatory areas

Is the absence of S3 and S4 an unusual finding?

Splitting of S2 is greatest during which part of respiration?

Describe a pericardial friction rub.

Not all murmurs are the result of valvular defects. Name four other causes of murmurs

Which four cardiac defects make up the tetralogy of Fallot?

TY is a 67-year-old female patient who presents for follow-up for her hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Her PMH includes a diagnosis of aortic stenosis diagnosed 2 years ago, IBS, and a seizure disorder. Her family history includes her father, who died at age 55 years of a myocardial infarction and her mother, who is deceased, who had hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Her social history is positive for smoking 1 PPD for 30 years; she quit 9 years ago. She is negative for alcohol and drug use. She lives in a two-bedroom condominium on one floor.

On examination, describe the murmur that you would hear for aortic stenosis.

Describe the cause of aortic stenosis. What is the cause for TY?

If TY’s past medical history did not include a diagnosis of aortic stenosis as well as cardiac risk factors, what other causes are there for a heart murmur?

If TY’s past medical history did not include a diagnosis of aortic stenosis as well as cardiac risk factors, describe a subaortic stenosis.

   Palpation of arterial pulses: Carotid, Brachial,  Radial, Femoral, Popliteal, Dorsalis pedis,  Posterior tibial.Define arterial blood pressure

Define arterial blood pressure

Which variables contribute to the characteristics of the pulses?

A pregnant patient (32 weeks’ gestation) is having difficulty with dependent edema and painful varicosities. What can you suggest to help this patient’s problem?

What should you do if you have trouble finding the patient’s pulse?

Describe the scale of 0 to 4 with regard to the amplitude of the pulse

If a patient experiences pain in the calf muscles, which artery is probably obstructed?

What two values are recorded for the blood pressure?

What is the mechanism behind cardiac tamponade?

Where are the most common places for venous ulcers to appear?

TB is a 56-year-old female patient with Raynaud phenomenon. Her past medical history includes spinal stenosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, bipolar disorder, and overactive bladder.

A-Differentiate the primary and secondary types of Raynaud phenomenon.

B-In the patient’s initial presentation what would be the chief complaint if the patient had primary Raynaud phenomenon? Secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

C-Based on TB’s presentation, what assessment results would you expect to find? What if is she had primary Raynaud phenomenon?

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