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ExplanatoryNotesDynamoandVirginSCROLLto474-478.pdf

ExplanatoryNotesDynamoandVirginSCROLLto474-478.pdf

EXPLANATORY NOTES

The breadth of Adams’s reading and the number and variety of his connectionsare reflected in the unusually wide range of references in the Education. It wouldbe impractical to gloss every item here, but the notes that follow identify themajor (and sometimes the minor) figures and events that play a central role inAdams’s account. A useful adjunct to the present edition is that edited by ErnestSamuels, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973.

5 Editor’s Preface: written by Henry Adams; found in a sealed packet con-taining a corrected copy of the privately printed 1907 edition with the ini-tials ‘H.C.L.’ added to the preface with the puzzled approval of SenatorHenry Cabot Lodge, who was instructed by Adams in a letter of 1916 topublish a posthumous edition. Lodge, a friend and former student ofAdams’s at Harvard, was also president of the Massachusetts HistoricalSociety in whom Adams had vested the copyright.

“Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres”: Adams’s study of Gothic architecture,published in 1904. Adams is here rationalizing the composition of theEducation; however, it grew out of Mont-Saint-Michel and was not plannedsimultaneously with it.

St. Augustine’s “Confessions”: Adams believed that St Augustine’sConfessions (397–401) was his chief literary model. To William James on 17February 1908 he wrote that among autobiographies, ‘I think St.Augustine alone has an idea of literary form—a notion of writing a storywith an end and an object, not for the sake of the object, but for the form,like a romance’ (Lett. vi. 119–20).

6 “A Letter to American Teachers”: a short book by Adams focusing on thesecond law of thermodynamics and entropy as applied to history.

severe illness: Adams suffered a stroke on 24 April 1912 which left him par-tially paralysed for several months. On his recovery he continued his ex-tensive correspondence and undertook new research on the medievalchanson. He wrote no more for publication, however.

1914: World War I began on 28 June 1914 when Gavrilo Princip, a BosnianSerb, shot and killed Archduke Ferdinand of Austro-Hungary in Sarajevo.By 3 August 1914 Germany declared war on France and the next dayGerman troops entered Belgium. 1914 seemed to confirm Adams’s mostpessimistic predictions. The war ended on 11 November 1918.

Henry Cabot Lodge: Adams affixed Lodge’s name to the preface as well asthe date, September 1918. Adams had written the preface in 1916, as he ex-plained in a letter to Lodge dated 1 March 1916. Lodge had read the pre-face and assented to the attachment of his name. He also respected Adams’swish to exclude any illustrations, especially portraits.

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7 Jean Jacques Rousseau . . . ‘I was a better man!’ ”: Rousseau’s Confessions ap-peared 1764–70. The translation appears to be Adams’s own.

Benjamin Franklin: (1706–90), American statesman, inventor, author,printer, and scientist. His unfinished Autobiography, much admired for itsliterary style and moral inspiration, was begun in 1771 and first publishedin its entirety in 1868.

misfit of the clothes: use of the mannequin and image of the tailor recalls the‘clothes philosophy’ of Carlyle’s Sartor Resartus, a favourite text ofAdams’s in his youth. Also see Ch. XXVII of the Education.

8 February 16, 1907: the date of Adams’s sixty-ninth birthday, suggestingthat he might have intended the book as a kind of birthday message to hisfriends. A similarly symbolic date appears in the preface to his Letter toAmerican Teachers of History in 1910 on the occasion of his seventy-secondbirthday.

9 John Hancock: (1737–93), the first signatory to the Declaration ofIndependence and the first governor of the state of Massachusetts.

Beacon Hill: location of the State Capitol and the symbolic centre of oldBoston; State Street was the financial centre of the city.

troglodytic: characteristic of cave-dweller, especially of prehistoric times.

John Adams: second president of the United States and the great-grand-father of Henry Adams, John Adams (1735–1826) returned from Londonin 1789 after four years’ service as American minister to England. He hadearlier served in France, helping to negotiate the Treaty of Paris ending theRevolutionary War. He was elected president in 1797 after serving asWashington’s vice-president. When president, he appointed his son, JohnQuincy Adams, minister to Berlin. After his defeat as president by ThomasJefferson in 1801, he returned to Washington as a congressman.

10 Gargantua-Napoleon-Bismarck: Gargantua: the giant in Rabelais’s comicmasterpiece Gargantua et Pantagruel (1552). Napoleon: (1769–1821),Corsican-born graduate of the École Militaire; conqueror of Austria,Piedmont, and Egypt who returned to France in 1799 to lead a coup anddeclare himself first consul; crowned emperor in 1804 in Notre DameCathedral. Reversals on several military fronts and a failing alliance led tohis exile in 1813 to Elba, from which he later escaped and returned toFrance in 1815, forcing Louis XVIII to flee to Holland. He was defeated,however, by Wellington at Waterloo on 18 June 1815 and later exiled to theisland of St Helena, where he died. Bismarck: (1815–98), Count Otto vonBismarck, often called ‘the Iron Chancellor’, was first a Prussian legislatorwho in 1859 was minister to St Petersburg and then Paris. He becameprime minister under Wilhelm I of Prussia; his expansionist military policyled to the defeat of Denmark and then Austria and the reorganization ofGermany under Prussian leadership. He provoked the Franco-PrussianWar (1870–1), leading to the defeat of Napoleon III and Bismarck’s ap-pointment as chancellor of the new German empire. Although he shaped

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imperial Germany at the end of the nineteenth century, a conflict with thenew German emperor, Wilhelm II, caused his resignation of the chancel-lorship in 1890.

Notre Dame: leading Gothic cathedral of Paris located on the Île de la Cité,built on the ruins of two earlier churches, predated by a Gallo-Roman tem-ple dedicated to Jupiter. The foundation stone was laid in 1163 and the altarconsecrated in 1189; the western façade was completed in 1250, the datealso for the finished twin Gothic towers. The spire was added during nine-teenth-century renovations. The three great rose windows date from thethirteenth century.

Boston and Albany Railroad: the railway was extended from Boston toQuincy in 1846.

11 his brothers: Henry Adams was the third of five brothers (there were alsotwo sisters): John Quincy (1833–94); Charles Francis (1835–1915); HenryBrooks (1838–1918); Arthur (1841–46); Brooks (1848–1927). His sisterswere Louisa Catherine (1831–70) and Mary (1846–1928).

12 Cromwellian: Political references are to the struggles of the colony againstthe British Crown and the short-lived dictatorship of Oliver Cromwell, theEnglish Puritan leader.

greatest grandmother: Edith Squires married the first Henry Adams inEngland before emigrating to the Massachusetts Bay Colony about 1633.

14 Adams grandfather . . . Brooks grandfather: Adams grandfather: John QuincyAdams (1767–1848), sixth president of the United States, who resided ona 7-acre tract in Quincy, Massachusetts, 7 miles south of Boston and bor-dering on the sea. The land was purchased by John Adams in 1787. In 1817John Quincy Adams returned to the USA after helping to negotiate theTreaty of Ghent in 1814 and then serving as minister to England. He waselected president in 1825 and served until 1829. Brooks grandfather: reput-edly the wealthiest man in New England, Peter Chardon Brooks (1767–1849) made his fortune as a merchant and then turned to real estate, repre-senting to his grandson Henry the power and influence of commerce inBoston.

15 both died in 1848: Adams is incorrect: Peter Chardon Brooks died on 1January 1849 as he notes at the opening of Ch. II.

17 President Polk: President James Polk’s support of the annexation of Texasas a slave state angered John Quincy Adams, who objected to the Southernexpansionist policy. Polk was president from 1845 to 1849.

19 President Quincy: Josiah Quincy (1772–1864), president of HarvardCollege from 1829 to 1845, was actually only five years younger than JohnQuincy Adams, not ten as Henry Adams writes.

The Madam: Louisa Catherine Adams, wife of President John QuincyAdams. Henry Adams worked on her voluminous memoirs in 1869 withthe thought of their publication. He discontinued the editing when he wasappointed to Harvard to teach in 1870.

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20 Romney portrait: George Romney (1734–1802) was a favourite painter ofthe British aristocracy. His portraits of women were especially flattering.

Abigail: Abigail Smith Adams (1744–1818), an early American advocate ofrights for women and wife of John Adams, second President of the UnitedStates. Her letters were edited in two volumes by her grandson, CharlesFrancis Adams, Henry Adams’s father.

21 Federalist Party: Federalist president John Adams was defeated for re-election by Thomas Jefferson in 1801. John Quincy Adams, the president’sson, was then minister to Berlin, but was recalled home after his father’sdefeat.

Cent Jours: the ‘hundred days’ from 20 March 1815 to 28 June 1815 was theperiod of Napoleon’s return to power in France after his exile on the islandof Elba. He was defeated at Waterloo on 18 June 1815.

Court of the Regent: the Prince of Wales (1762–1830) ruled as prince regentfor nine years after his father, George III (1738–1820), became ill in 1811.On his father’s death in 1820, he became George IV.

back to Congress in 1833: The date is wrong, indicating Adams’s occasionalinaccuracy. John Quincy Adams was elected in 1830 to the 22nd Congressand took his seat in 1831.

22 the battle of Bunker Hill: the bloodiest engagement of the entire AmericanRevolution. It took place on 17 June 1775 and was actually fought not onBunker Hill but on nearby Breed’s Hill.

hurt himself: John Quincy Adams suffered a slight stroke on 20 November1846. He was back in his seat in Congress, however, by 12 February 1847.He had a second stroke on the floor of the House of Representatives on 21February 1848 and died on the 23rd.

Dr. Parkman: Dr George Parkman (1790–1849), prominent Bostonian whodonated the site of the Harvard Medical College.

P. P. F. Degrand: (d. 1855), originally a Philadelphia banker.23 Stuart portraits: Gilbert Stuart (1755–1828), American portrait painter ac-

claimed for his portrait of George Washington. Studied in London underBenjamin West. He also did portraits of John Adams and John QuincyAdams.

Dr. Lunt: Revd William Parsons Lunt (1805–57) delivered the funeral ora-tion at the commemorative services for John Quincy Adams on 11 March1848.

Buckminster: John Stevens Buckminster (1784–1812), one of the firstUnitarian ministers in Boston and important contributor to biblicalscholarship in the United States.

Channing: William Ellery Channing (1740–1842), the most influentialspokesman of the Unitarian movement.

Faneuil Hall: Boston gathering-place for patriotic meetings before theRevolution, known as ‘the cradle of liberty’.

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Edward Everett: (1794–1865), brother-in-law of Henry Adams’s motherand a famous Unitarian preacher and congressman, minister to England,and president of Harvard from 1846 to 1849.

Sam Adams’s father: (1689–1748), a first cousin of President John Adams’sfather, John Adams (1691–1761). Consequently, Sam Adams was a secondcousin of President John Adams.

State Street: the financial centre of Boston and chief support of the mostconservative elements in the Federalist party.

25 Andrew Jackson: President of the United States from 1829 to 1837, Jacksondefeated John Quincy Adams in a notorious campaign. Earlier, in the elec-tion of 1824, Jackson won the larger popular vote but lost out to Adams inthe electoral college.

26 Quincy: the ancestral home of the Adamses which symbolized the politicalideals of the family, including a strong moral opposition to the pro-slaveryviews of the conservative leaders of the State Street financial district.

Mr. Webster: Daniel Webster (1782–1852), senator from Massachusettsafter 1827 who in 1834, with Henry Clay, formed the Whig party out ofRepublican followers of John Quincy Adams and the Democrats opposedto Jackson’s abolition of the National Bank.

Mr. Seward: William Henry Seward (1801–72), senator from New Yorkknown for his strong anti-slavery attitude who nevertheless supported theWhig compromise candidates in 1848 and 1852. By 1860 Seward had be-come the leader of the new Republican party.

27 a fair parallel: In 1776 John Adams declared his support with the AmericanRevolutionists against England.

29 Dr. Palfrey . . . O. W. Holmes: Dr. Palfrey: (1796–1881), family friend of theAdamses who was also a congressman and historian. As editor of the NorthAmerican Review, he encouraged Henry Adams to write his first article forthe quarterly. President Walker: John Walker (1794–1874) was professor ofreligion and after 1853, president of Harvard. R. W. Emerson: Ralph WaldoEmerson (1803–82), foremost New England poet and essayist born inBoston, educated at Harvard; in 1829 became pastor of a Unitarian churchin Boston but had to resign because of his controversial views. In 1833 trav-elled to Europe where he met and befriended Thomas Carlyle; became theleading spokesperson of the Transcendental movement. In his Journals hecriticized John Quincy Adams as ‘a bruiser [who] loves a melee . . . He is anold roué who cannot live on slops, but must have sulphuric acid in his tea.’Journals, ed. William H. Gilman and J. E. Parsons (Cambridge, Mass.:Harvard Univ. Press, 1970), viii. 339. Boston ministers: All of these clergy-men were influential in the growth of Unitarianism between 1800 and1835. The first Unitarian congregation in the USA was established in 1782at King’s Chapel, Boston. Theodore Parker: (1810–60), founded the Con-gregational Society of Boston where he celebrated Transcendentalism, aswell as radical social and political reform. Brook Farm: From 1841 to 1847

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an experiment in cooperative community living near West Roxbury,Massachusetts. philosophy of Concord: The philosophic and literary move-ment which flourished from approximately 1836 to 1860 in Concord underthe leadership of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Ticknor: George Ticknor (1791–1871), the first Smith Professor of French and Spanish at Harvard and au-thor of a massive history of Spanish literature. Prescott: William HicklingPrescott (1796–1859), historian of the conquest of Mexico and Peru. Long-fellow: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807–82), author of Hiawatha(1855) and the most popular American poet of the nineteenth century.Born in Maine and educated at Bowdoin College, he developed his skill asa translator; accepted post at Harvard after study in Europe. ‘Paul Revere’sRide’ appeared in an 1863 collection, Tales of a Wayside Inn. Motley: JohnLothrop Motley (1814–77), Boston-born historian and author of The Riseof the Dutch Republic, was also minister to Austria and England. He suc-ceeded Charles Francis Adams as minister to England in 1869. PresidentUlysses S. Grant recalled Motley from London in July 1870; failing to re-sign, however, Motley was dismissed in December. Adams made use of thisincident in his anonymously published novel, Democracy (1880), in his por-trayal of Nathan Gore. O. W. Holmes: Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809–94),leading Boston literary figure as poet and novelist, author of Autocrat atthe Breakfast Table (1858) and father of Justice Holmes (see n. to p. 51,below).

29 Mr. Winthrop: Robert Charles Winthrop (1804–94), descendant of the firstgovernor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, was appointed senator to succeedDaniel Webster when he became secretary of state. Defeated by CharlesSumner in 1851.

Mr. Garrison: William Lloyd Garrison (1805–79), vitriolic editor of theabolitionist paper the Liberator who attacked the constitution as a slave-holder’s document and advocated a division of the Union.

30 Mr. Wendell Phillips: (1811–84), prominent Boston abolitionist and sup-porter of Garrison.

Mr. Edmund Quincy: (1808–77), reformer and author closely associatedwith Garrison and frequent contributor to anti-slavery publications.

set up a party of his own: ironic since Charles Francis Adams did not estab-lish the Free Soil party, although he played an important role in its organ-ization.

three: . . . Charles Sumner: Dr. John G. Palfrey: see note to p. 29 above.Richard H. Dana: (1815–82), Boston lawyer and author of Two Years Beforethe Mast, also active in Free Soil politics and defender of fugitive slaves.Charles Sumner: (1811–74), elected to US Senate on Free Soil ticket andthe eloquent leader of New England opposition to ‘Slave Power’. He be-came active in the impeachment proceedings against President Johnson.

William M. Evarts: (1818–1901), Boston-born New York lawyer active inRepublican politics who failed to win election to the Senate in 1861 butlater served as attorney general for a period in 1869 and then as secretary of

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state from 1877 to 1881. Henry Adams became a close friend when Evartswas sent to London in 1863 to serve as legal adviser to Adams’s father, theminister.

Edmund Burke: (1729–97), Dublin-born English statesman and politicalphilosopher whose 1775 speech on conciliation with the American coloniesmade him a well-known name in the United States. Author of PhilosophicalInquiry into the Sublime and Beautiful (1756), which established the founda-tion of aesthetics in England, and the influential Reflections on the FrenchRevolution (1790), popular throughout Europe. Adams owned a nine-volume set of his work.

31 Beacon Street: centre of fashionable Boston running down Beacon Hillfrom the State House.

Russell: George R. Russell (1816–90), Free Soil leader and aspirant forCongress who withdrew from the race of 1858 to allow the nomination ofHenry Adams’s father.

Mr. Lodge: John Ellerton Lodge (1807–62), Boston merchant and father ofHenry Cabot Lodge.

32 newspaper: the Boston Daily Whig began publication six months beforeHenry Adams’s father became editor and one of the owners.

“Works”: Works of John Adams (10 vols., Boston, 1850–6), ed. CharlesFrancis Adams, who also wrote the Life contained in vol. 1.Novanglus and Massachusettensis: pseudonym with which John Adamssigned his controversial articles in the Boston Gazette replying to the loyal-ist essays signed ‘Massachusettensis’.

Ciceronian: the reference is to Cicero’s De Republica, a dialogue on the bestform of government.

Peter Harvey: (1810–77), Whig politician. The other contributors repres-ented wealthy Bostonian families. See note p. 46.

33 Louis Philippe . . . Carlyle: Louis Philippe: (1773–1850), king of France1830–48, a liberal monarch. Guizot. François Guizot (1787–1874), his-torian and first minister of France who opposed parliamentary reform. deTocqueville: Count Alexis de Tocqueville (1805–59), French historian andpolitical scientist; author of Democracy in America (2 vols., 1835–40), theresult of his 1831 visit to America initially to study the prison system; fo-cused on the success of the democratic experiment so that France might bebetter prepared for the transition to democracy. Robert Peel: (1788–1850),British statesman and Tory prime minister from 1834–5, 1841–6. Was sec-retary for Ireland (1812–18), then home secretary (1822–7, 1828–30), car-rying through Catholic Emancipation Act. Also reorganized the Londonpolice force. Macaulay: Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800–59), historianbest known for his History of the Roman Empire and History of England.Member of parliament who supported the reform bill for extending thevote. John Stuart Mill: (1806–73), empiricist philosopher, social reformerand economist, remembered as the author of On Liberty (1859), and his

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Autobiography (1873), as well as political essays and studies of politicaleconomy. Carlyle: Thomas Carlyle (1795–1881), author of Sartor Resartus,which argued for the spiritual regeneration of society, and Heroes and Hero-Worship. He was an early hero for Adams, who owned a number of his booksincluding The French Revolution, Past and Present, and Sartor Resartus. Thelast of these echoes throughout the Education.

33 Karl Marx: (1818–83), German-born founder of communism who studiedlaw, history, and philosophy in Bonn and Berlin; author of the CommunistManifesto (1848); settled in London in 1849 where he studied economics.His major work, Das Kapital, appeared in 1867 as an extended critique ofthe capitalist system.

“Were half the power . . . no need of arsenals or forts”: Longfellow, ‘The Arsenalat Springfield’, published in Belfry of Bruges and Other Poems in 1845.

34 Octavius Frothingham: (1822–95), a Unitarian minister who later became anindependent clergyman and author of Transcendentalism in New England.

35 “Hosea Biglow”: protagonist of James Russell Lowell’s Biglow Papers (firstseries 1847), whose rhymed ‘Epistles’ satirized the war with Mexico andthe evils of slavery.

37 yellow-legs: American shore-birds.

40 brother Charles: Charles Francis Adams, jun. (1835–1915), attended theBoston Latin School and went on to Harvard and then read law. He foughtin the Civil War, becoming a colonel of the Fifth Massachusetts Cavalry, ablack regiment. After the war he married; following a lengthy Europeanhoneymoon, he returned to develop a specialty in railroads and their re-form. By 1869 he was appointed to the Massachusetts Board of RailroadCommissioners, becoming chair in 1872. Within six years, he became chairof government directors of the Union Pacific Railroad and by 1884, presid-ent of the railroad. Within six and a half years, his railroad career ended asthe company faced financial crises. Adams, however, remained an investorand speculator, making enormous fortunes in real estate, largely bought inKansas City. He developed a strong interest in history and became the firstpresident of the Massachusetts Historical Society and the author of severalminor histories of Massachusetts communities. His biography of his fatherappeared in 1900; his autobiography in 1916.

Henry Higginson: (1834–1919), became a leading Boston financier andphilanthropist; founder of the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1881.

41 Turenne: (1611–75), a noted soldier who fought under Richelieu andMazarin and in 1660 became marshal general of France.

Henri IV: (1553–1610), King of Navarre, became King of France in 1589and did much to reconcile Catholic and Protestant factions. He was assas-sinated in 1610.

Fugitive Slave Law: Passed as part of the Compromise of 1850, the law pro-vided for exclusive federal jurisdiction over runaway slaves. The day after

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its passage, the young Henry Adams witnessed a Boston mob trying to savea runaway slave; they failed and he was taken to the wharf by a battalion ofUS soldiers. The crowd was held back by the state militia.

Stamp Act: This stamp tax of 1765 required revenue stamps to be attachedto all documents and newspapers and was the first act of parliament to taxAmerican commodities directly for revenue purposes. It became one of themajor American grievances leading to the American Revolution.

Tea Tax: This levied an import duty on tea and led to the Boston Tea Partyof 1773 when demonstrators, disguised as Indians, dumped three tea car-goes into the harbour.

Boston Massacre: occurred on 5 March 1770 when British soldiers fired ona mob, killing four and wounding others. Captain Preston and the soldierswere charged with murder. John Adams was asked to defend them and ob-tained an acquittal from the jury. These episodes helped to precipitate theAmerican Revolution.

42 unfinished square marble shaft: the Washington monument, begun in 1848but not completed until 1884.

43 Johnson blood: Refers to Louisa Catherine Johnson (1775–1852), who mar-ried John Quincy Adams. She was Henry Adams’s grandmother.

Clay: Henry Clay (1772–1852), Virginia-born statesman who moved toKentucky, a leading figure in the passage of the Missouri Compromise of1820 and the Compromise of 1850. A moderate on the slavery issue and re-membered for his remark, ‘I had rather be right than be President.’

Calhoun: John Caldwell Calhoun (1782–1850), South Carolina statesmanwho served as vice-president under President John Quincy Adams and aleading political philosopher for the Southern states. Advocated dual sov-ereignty. Adams’s recollection is wrong: Calhoun died late in March, twomonths before Adams arrived in Washington.

Conklinian: Roscoe Conkling (1829–88), a senator from New York and aRepublican machine politician, flamboyant in manner and an eloquentspeaker, who was disliked by Adams for his opposition to civil-service re-form. Later, one of the sources of Adams’s satire of Senator Ratcliffe in hissuccessful 1880 novel, Democracy.

44 President Taylor: Zachary Taylor (1784–1850), visited by Henry Adamsand his father on 4 June 1850, one month before the president’s death.Confirming the account of the shabby condition of the White House is thediary of Charles Francis Adams, Henry Adams’s father.

Free Soil Party: the Free Soil ticket of Martin van Buren and CharlesFrancis Adams did not win a single state but their candidacies split theDemocratic ticket in New York, giving the state’s electoral vote to the Whigcandidate, General Zachary Taylor.

Nathaniel Gorham: (1738–96), president of the Continental congress, 1786and the grandfather of Henry Adams’s mother on her mother’s side.

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44 Mount Vernon: George Washington’s Virginia estate, which has become anational monument; Adams used it fictionally in his 1880 novel, Demo-cracy.

45 John Marshall: (1755–1835), chief justice of the Supreme Court, 1801–35,who fashioned its role in interpreting the constitution and established thedoctrine of judicial review.

46 Peter Harvey: (1810–77), a wealthy Boston merchant who served in bothhouses of the Massachusetts legislature and was a close friend of DanielWebster.

Thurlow Weed: (1797–1882), publisher of the Albany Journal, 1830–63, be-coming one of the most influential anti-slavery editors and politicians inthe Northeast.

Henry Wilson . . . Anson Burlingame: Henry Wilson: (1812–75), abolitionistand US senator from Massachusetts; vice-president (1873–5), duringGrant’s second term. John B. Alley: (1817–96), congressman fromMassachusetts, 1859–67. Anson Burlingame: (1820–70), congressman fromMassachusetts, 1855–61, minister to China, 1861–7.

George S. Boutwell: (1818–1905), governor of Massachusetts, 1851–2, thensecretary of the treasury under Grant, 1869–73.

47 Tammany Hall: Tammany societies (named for a Delaware Indian chiefwho supposedly welcomed William Penn) were patriotic societies thatflourished during the American Revolution. Only the New York societylasted, with headquarters at Tammany Hall. It influenced the Democraticparty and represented party machinery and political corruption.

Caleb Cushing: (1800–79), first a Whig then a Democrat, who was laternominated by Grant to become chief justice; his previous record preventedhis confirmation, however.

50 no one took Harvard College seriously: the Adamses consistently criticizedthe intellectual life of Harvard College, although one of them usuallyserved on the examining committees or Board of Overseers.

51 Alexander Agassiz: (1835–1910), son of the great Swiss geologist whotaught at Harvard, later a successful geologist and mining engineer andauthor of Coral Reefs of the Tropical Pacific (1903).

Phillips Brooks: (1835–93), Episcopal clergyman; noted rector of TrinityChurch in Boston, 1869–91, and a second cousin of Henry Adams. An out-standing pulpit orator, he preached the sermon over Lincoln’s body atIndependence Hall in Philadelphia in 1865. Author of ‘O Little Town ofBethlehem’.

H. H. Richardson: Henry Hobson Richardson (1838–86), distinguishedAmerican architect from New Orleans who attended Harvard and wouldlater design the side-by-side homes of Henry Adams and his wife, and JohnHay and his wife at the corner of Sixteenth and H Streets frontingLafayette Square in Washington, completed in 1886. The actual address

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was 1603 H Street and a photograph of the building appears in Lett. iv.136. Clover Adams, Henry’s wife, included a portrait photograph ofRichardson in her collection. He was the most popular architect in Americain the post-Civil War period. In 1885 architects throughout the countryvoted on what they considered to be the ten best buildings in America: fiveof them were by Richardson. For details of his life and career see James F.O’Gorman, Living Architecture, (1997).O. W. Holmes: Oliver Wendell Holmes (1841–1935), author of CommonLaw (1881) and justice of the US Supreme Court from 1902 to 1925.

52 son of Colonel Robert E. Lee . . . the two others: William ‘Roony’ HenryFitzhugh Lee (1837–91). Benjamin D. M. Jones and James May were thetwo others.

N. L. Anderson: Nicholas Longworth Anderson (1838–92), from a promin-ent Cincinnati family, rose to become a major general in the Union Armyby the close of the Civil War.

Light Horse Harry: Henry Lee (1756–1818), hero of the AmericanRevolution.

54 bos primigenius: literally, ‘original ox’.General Winfield Scott: (1786–1866), commanding general of the USArmy, 1841–61. An expedition of 1,500 soldiers was sent to Utah in 1857 tore-establish Federal control of the territory and protect non-Mormonsfrom violence.

what no student cared or needed to know: a characteristic exaggeration byAdams. His history courses at Harvard were immensely popular and hewas considered a fine teacher.

55 “Capital”: another slip of Adams’s satire; vol. 1 of Marx’s Capital appearedin German in 1867, nine years after Adams graduated from Harvard. Thefirst English translation was 1886; the date of Adams’s own copy is 1887.

Auguste Comte: (1798–1857), founder of Positivism, a school of nineteenth-century philosophy, and author of the influential Positivist Philosophy (6vols., 1830–42), translated into English in 1853. Comte believed that humanknowledge progressed through three stages: the theological, the meta-physical, and then the positive which rejects the search for absolutes andemploys the scientific method based on reason and observation. JohnStuart Mill’s Auguste Comte and Positivism (1865) popularized the philo-sophy in America and England. One who followed his ideas was called aComteian.

Louis Agassiz: (1807–73), Swiss palaeontologist whose work on fossil fishpublished in 1840 profoundly influenced geological thought; professor atHarvard who taught Adams and the chief opponent of Darwin’s theories inAmerica.

56 James Russell Lowell: (1819–91), succeeded Longfellow as professor ofbelles-lettres and as the leading poet in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Laterbecame US minister to Spain and to England.

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56 Matthew Arnold: (1822–88), Adams, long an admirer of Arnold’s Cultureand Anarchy, first met the author in London 1879. In the autumn of 1883,Arnold visited the Adamses in Washington during his American lecturetour—to the displeasure of Clover.

Ernest Renan: (1823–92), French philosopher and historian whose workwas influenced by German culture. Appointed professor of Hebrew at theCollège de France but his controversial La Vie de Jésus (1863) delayed hisconfirmation until 1870. Published a series of studies on the origins ofChristianity.

Balzac: Honoré de Balzac (1799–1850), French novelist known for hispowerful multi-volume account of French society at every level: LeComédie humaine. Two of the titles in the series are Le Père Goriot andIllusions perdues.Second Empire: (1852–70), led by the autocratic Napoleon III, it collapsedwith the defeat of the French in the Franco-German War of 1870.

57 the Concord faith: Emersonian transcendentalism, a philosophy of moralidealism and intuition which argued that true reality was spiritual.

dark days of 1856: a period of bitter controversy over the extension of slav-ery marked by warfare in Kansas in which John Brown, the militant aboli-tionist who led the raid on Harper’s Ferry (1859), participated.

as Mr. Emerson justly said: Adams changes Emerson’s emphasis. See ch. VIof Nature by Emerson, who stressed ‘a noble doubt’ on the reality of theuniverse and the outward existence of nature.

58 President Walker: James Walker (1794–1874), notable Unitarian ministerand president of Harvard, 1853–60.

President Felton: Cornelius Felton (1807–62), professor of Greek andpresident of Harvard, 1860–2.

John La Farge . . . John Hay: John La Farge: (1835–1910), New York artistfamous for his mural paintings and stained-glass windows including thosein Trinity Church, Boston, was a lifelong friend and travelling companionof Adams (whose niece later married La Farge’s son). Noted for his pre-impressionist landscapes and flowers, he later revived the art of stained-glass windows in America; two examples were in the Washington home ofJohn Hay, Adams’s closest friend and neighbour. Adams recreates La Fargeas the artist Wharton in his 1884 novel, Esther. Augustus St. Gaudens:(1848–1907), Irish-born American sculptor raised in New York whotrained in Paris. Among his well-known works are the Shaw Memorial onBoston Common, the equestrian statue of General Sherman in New Yorkand the seated Lincoln in Chicago. Commissioned in 1886 by Adams tocreate the statue commemorating his wife’s grave at Rock Creek Cemetery,Washington. Considered to be the foremost American sculptor of his time.Clarence King: (1842–1901), distinguished geologist and mining engineerwho made and lost fortunes. Graduate of the Sheffield Scientific School atYale. In 1867 at the age of 25 he successfully lobbied for a bill authorizing

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geological survey of a 100-mile-wide corridor along the new western rail-road. In 1878 published Systematic Geology and in 1879 was made directorof the new bureau of the US Geological Survey. His volume Mountaineeringin the Sierra Nevada (1872) is a minor literary classic. A dazzling and ro-mantic member of the ‘Five of Hearts’, the elite social group surroundingthe Adamses in Washington, King also led a double life: his common-lawmarriage to a black woman in New York was one of the best-kept secrets ofhis intimate friends. He appears as George Strong in Adams’s 1884 novel,Esther. For an early account see Thurman Wilkins, Clarence King (1958).John Hay: (1838–1905), author, journalist, diplomat and secretary of statefor Theodore Roosevelt. Studied law in Lincoln’s office in Illinois andcame to Washington to serve as assistant private secretary to Lincoln. Hisfriend John Nicolay was Lincoln’s private secretary. Published the popularPike Country Ballads in 1871 with the popular poems, ‘Jim Bludso’ and‘Little Breeches’. In 1896 became ambassador to Britain; two years laterwas appointed secretary of state. Adams’s closest male friend with whomhe built his unique side-by-side home in Washington, designed by H. H.Richardson. With King and the Adamses, Mr. and Mrs Hay made up the‘Five of Hearts’.

61 Class Oration of 1858: in his speech Adams offered high-minded criticismof materialistic success. An editorial in the Springfield Republican of 1869recalled its absence of distinction except for its ‘irony and cynicism’. For anaccount see HA I, 51.

62 Hasty Pudding: exclusive Harvard club known for its theatrical extravag-anzas. Adams played the role of Sir Anthony Absolute in Sheridan’sThe Rivals (1755) and of Sir Robert in George Coleman’s Poor Gentlemen(1801).

Council of Trent: 1563, the supreme meeting of the Roman Catholic churchwhich condemned the doctrines of the Protestant Reformation.

63 Civil Law: system of Roman law originating with the Institutes of Justinianupon which the continental legal systems were based.

64 November, 1858: Adams misremembers again. He sailed from New York on29 September 1858, arriving in Liverpool eleven days later; he reachedBerlin on 22 October.

pons asinorum: ‘bridge of asses’, a term applied to the proposition in planegeometry that the base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal, so namedfrom the difficulty of beginners in mastering it.

G. P. R. James: (1801–60), popular British novelist and historian who wasalso for many years a British consul in the USA. Industrious writer of his-torical romances, which numbered over 100, he was perhaps best knownfor Richelieu (1829) and Agincourt (1844). Thackeray, among others, paro-died him.

65 Charles the First . . . to see his army defeated: the Royalist army was defeatedon Rowton Heath by Cromwell’s armies on 24 September 1645. Charles Iwas tried for treason and beheaded on 30 January 1649.

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65 Black District: also known as the ‘Black Country’, was northwest ofBirmingham and was considered the heart of industrial England.

Professor Bowen: Francis Bowen (1811–90), philosopher and political eco-nomist, hostile to positivism and socialism.

his Satanic free-trade majesty John Stuart Mill: John Stuart Mill advoc-ated free trade and laissez-faire economics. He was also a Liberal re-former in British politics and popularizer of positivism. See above, note top. 33.

the Strand: at that period, a fashionable main road in central London run-ning from Charing Cross at Trafalgar Square to Fleet Street, once thecentre of London’s newspapers.

Dr. Johnson: Dr Samuel Johnson (1709–84), distinguished writer, poet,lexicographer, and man of letters, the subject of James Boswell’s great Lifeof Johnson (1791).

Piccadilly: then the most fashionable shopping and social area of London,bordering on Green Park.

66 Ostade: Adriaen Van Ostade (1610–85), Dutch painter and engraver. Apupil of Frans Hals, he chose his subjects from everyday life.

Teniers: David Teniers (1610–90), a prolific Flemish painter who settled inBrussels; best known for his scenes of peasant life in the tradition ofBrueghel. With Van Ostade, represented rural scenes and rural life.

Duke of Alva: (1508–82), Spanish governor of occupied Netherlands,hated for his cruelty.

Rubens: Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640), German-born Flemish painterfrom Antwerp known for full-bodied figures in his secular as well as religi-ous paintings. His triptych, Descent from the Cross, is in the AntwerpCathedral. Commissioned by Marie de’ Medicis of France and, later,Philip IV of Spain to paint a series of works. In 1629 he became envoy toCharles I of England, completing a number of new paintings.

Malmsey: sweet Madeira wine popular in England.

67 Pandects: compendium in fifty volumes of Roman civil law made by orderof Emperor Justinian in the sixth century; they soon became the mostimportant body of Roman civil law.

68 Heine: Heinrich Heine (1797–1856), German Jewish Romantic poet andessayist whose first book of poems appeared in 1821. His revolutionaryopinions forced him to go into voluntary exile in Paris after the 1830 revo-lution and he turned from poetry to politics in his writing, commentingoften on French and German culture.

South Carolinian cane: during Sumner’s Senate speech of 22 May 1856denouncing the Kansas-Nebraska bill, he was confronted by Preston S.Brooks, a South Carolinian congressman and one of the authors of the bill,who charged him with libelling his state and beat him unconscious.

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Robert Apthorp: (d. 1884), prominent Bostonian father of William Apthorp,Boston musical expert.

Ober-tertia: upper third form; Adams wrote an essay on his experiences inthis form which appeared posthumously as ‘Two Letters on a PrussianGymnasium’, American Historical Review, 3 (Oct. 1947), 59–74.

69 disgusting: in 1858, with a population of half a million, Berlin was one of themost unsanitary cities in Europe, with open sewers, public pumps, andbasement slums.

Linden: Unter den Linden was a broad avenue of palaces, museums, em-bassies, government ministries, the opera, and university buildings.

71 Haus-frauen: housewives.72 “Tannhäuser”: Adams first heard Wagner’s opera during his stay in Berlin

in the winter of 1858–9.

“Götterdämmerung”: the third opera in Wagner’s Ring of the Nibelung;Adams heard it when he attended the Bayreuth festival devoted toWagner’s work in July 1901 where the entire Ring cycle was performed. Hedid not enjoy Wagner’s work but acknowledged its importance.

Thüringen: a forest in central Germany with a 70-mile range of low-woodedmountains.

73 his three companions . . . B. W. Crowninshield: John Bancroft: John ChandlerBancroft (1835–1901), son of the historian George Bancroft and cousin ofAdams’s future wife, Marian ‘Clover’ Hooper. James J. Higginson: (1836–1911), a classmate of Henry Adams’s brother Charles and Henry’s chiefcompanion in Berlin. B. W. Crowninshield: Benjamin Crowninshield(1837–92), a classmate of Adams’s and one of his friends from Harvardwho crossed to Liverpool with him.

“Warte . . . Ruhest du auch!”: ‘Just wait! soon | Thou too shall rest’; fromGoethe’s poem ‘Wanderer’s Nightsong’, written 6 September 1780 in hishand on the wall of a small shooting lodge on the Gichelhahn, the highestof the hills around Ilmenau.

Sistine Madonna: by Raphael (1483–1520), was then owned by the Dresdengallery.

Correggio: (1489–1534), head of the celebrated Parma school of painting inItaly. At least four of his paintings were owned by the Dresden gallery.

74 war on Austria: in 1858 Napoleon III and Count Cavour of Italy, premierunder King Victor Emmanuel, secretly agreed to provoke war with Austriato liberate the provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.

Guelph or Ghibelline: the two warring parties in fourteenth-centuryFlorence, the Guelphs representing the papal faction, the Ghibellines sup-porting the German emperor. For a short while Dante was a leader of theGuelphs.

75 Machiavelli: Niccolo Machiavelli (1469–1527), statesman and politicalphilosopher in the service of the Medici of Florence; author of The Prince(1513), a treatise on effective rule without the bother of morality or mercy.

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75 a sister: Louisa Catherine (1831–70), seven years older than Henry Adamsand first-born of the children. She married Charles Kuhn, a member of aprominent Philadelphia family, in 1854 and moved to Italy. Her accidentaldeath in Italy caused much grief for Henry Adams, who describes her finaldays in Ch. XIX of the Education.

76 Garibaldi’s Cacciatori: The Cacciatori delle Alpi, the Alpine hunters ofGaribaldi (1807–82), a volunteer force of 3,000 men organized in 1859 bythe Italian patriot leader.

the charming patriot: Mrs Kuhn.Austrian Jägers: Austrian riflemen and soldiers originally formed fromhuntsmen who carried their own weapons.

77 Frau Hofräthin von Reichenbach: wife of the botanist-geologist HeinrichReichenbach (1793–1897).

“The Initials”: a romantic novel by the expatriate English BaronessTautphoeus concerning the adventures of a young English woman whocomes to Germany to learn the language and customs but is baffled byGerman society.

Raphael Pumpelly: (1837–1923), longtime friend of Adams, geologist andexplorer who in 1859 took charge of silver mines in Arizona, then Apacheterritory.

Clarence King: actually a student at the Sheffield Scientific School at Yaleat the time. His observations of the Digger Indians occurred in 1864 whenhe was with the geological survey of California. See above, note to p. 58.

78 sent him to Congress: Charles Francis Adams expressed surprise at the broadpopular support that made his election to Congress in the fall of 1859 a tri-umph.

Boston Courier: the six letters from Italy signed H.B.A. appeared sporadic-ally between 30 April and 13 July 1860.

80 Rienzi . . . Aurelian: Rienzi: Cola di Rienzi (1313–54), a popular leader whooverthrew the aristocracy in 1347 but himself became a tyrant; he was mur-dered by a Roman mob. Garibaldi: Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807–82), Italianpatriot and soldier, leading figure in the Italian Risorgimento. TiberiusGracchus: (163–133 bce), popular tribune who sponsored land reforms butwas murdered by senatorial opposition during an election riot. Aurelian:(212–275 ce), Roman emperor known as the Restorer of the RomanEmpire; was murdered by an officer cabal. Adams’s arrangement of figuresavoids a chronological sequence.

ruins of the Capitol: this passage comes from the first printed version ofEdward Gibbon’s unfinished Autobiography, which Adams owned. Thequotation in Murray is actually from a later interpolation in theAutobiography and differs slightly from the passage Adams cites. Gibbon’sdates are 1737–94.

Santa Maria di Ara Coeli: the altar of Heaven, a church built on the site of

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the pagan temple of Juno where according to legend Augustus Caesar an-nounced the birth of Christ. Gibbon sat on the steps of the church con-templating the fate of Rome.

81 Tacitus: (55–120 ce), orator and Roman historian during Rome’s imperialsuccesses; known for his concise and vivid prose style.

Cavour: Count Camillo Cavour (1810–61), Italian premier, friend ofGaribaldi.

Hamilton Wilde: (1827–84), expatriate Boston portraitist and genre painter.Robert Browning: (1812–89), English poet with whom Adams became ac-quainted. ‘Pippa Passes’ was his popular poetic drama which appeared in1841.

82 Saint Francis: St Francis of Assisi (1182–1226), ascetic, mystic, and poet,founder of the Franciscan order and much admired by Adams as the ex-emplar of the unselfish life of intuitive faith. See ‘The Mystics’, Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres.William Story: William Wetmore Story (1819–95), expatriate New Eng-land sculptor whose studio in Rome was a favourite meeting-place for,among others, Browning, Hawthorne, and James (who in 1903 publishedWilliam Wetmore Story and His Friends). Adams visited Story as early as1860 and continued to call whenever in Rome, including a stop during hishoneymoon in 1873.

Mommsen: Theodore Mommsen (1817–1903), German historian andarchaeologist, professor of ancient history at Berlin, author of three-volume history of Rome.

Chandler: Joseph Ripley Chandler (1792–1880), American minister inNaples at the time.

Captain Palmer: James Shedden Palmer (1810–67), who subsequentlyserved under Admiral Farragut during the Civil War.

Prince Caracciolo: the revolutionary Prince Francesco Caracciolo(1752–99), an admiral under Ferdinand IV of Naples who tried to preventthe landing of the British and Sicilian fleet in 1799; as a result, he washanged by order of Nelson.

83 Dumas: Alexandre Dumas (1802–70), French author of immensely pop-ular historical novels including The Count of Monte Cristo and The ThreeMusketeers.Spartacus: (d. 71 bce), Roman slave leader in the unsuccessful gladiatorialrebellion against Rome.

Condottiere: a leader of mercenary soldiers hired by Italian states in thewars of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries.

84 July heat: should read ‘June heat’. By 1 July Adams was in Paris.more he did not seek: Adams exaggerates his limited knowledge of French.He studied French at Harvard and had been tutored in it by his father. Healso wrote a series of lengthy letters to his family from Paris in French.

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86 Blackstone: Sir William Blackstone (1723–80), whose Commentaries on theLaws of England (1765–68) formed the standard introduction to the studyof common law in England and America.

Wide-Awakes: supporters of Lincoln joined together into Wide-AwakeClubs to organize militant processions. They were soon absorbed into regi-ments of volunteers.

87 Old House: the mansion of John Adams in Quincy built in 1737 and pur-chased in 1787. Seven acres of farm land surrounded it.

“Quantula sapientia mundus regitur!”: Adams quotes only a portion of thefull phrase from Count Axel Gustafsson Oxenstiern (1583–1654). It reads,‘Behold my sons, with how little wisdom the world is directed.’

88 Israel Washburn: (1813–83), representative from Maine and a key figure inthe organization of the Republican party in 1854.

89 Preston King . . . Henry J. Raymond: Preston King: (1806–65), Republicansenator from New York. Henry Winter Davis: (1817–65), Baltimore lawyerand independent political leader, representative in Congress, 1855–61, andan anti-secessionist. Owen Lovejoy: (1811–64), clergyman and anti-slaverycongressman from Illinois, 1857–64, brother of Elijah Lovejoy; waslynched in 1837 by a pro-slavery mob in Alton, Illinois. Henry J. Raymond:(1820–69), editor, politician, and co-founder of the New York Times, 1851,and a New York political leader. He replaced invective and partisan re-porting with fairness and impartiality. He said that when he wrote a sen-tence he could not help seeing how it was only partially true before he gotto the end.

Benton: Thomas Hart Benton (1782–1858), senator and congressman fromMissouri, Democratic leader in Congress, supporter of Andrew Jacksonand spokesman for westward exploration and expansion.

Clay: Henry Clay (1772–1852), see note to p. 43, above.bouffe: farcical.Godkin: Edwin Lawrence Godkin (1831–1902), Irish-born journalist whoedited the Nation from its founding in 1865 as a vehicle of political reform.Malvolio: conceited and self-important steward of Olivia in Shakespeare’sTwelfth Night; his vanity makes him the victim of various jokes in the play.

91 Hildreth: Richard Hildreth (1807–65), Boston historian and author ofHistory of the United States (6 vols., 1849–56). Despite Hildreth’s claim,Adams was friendly with him.

92 concentrated education: Adams again deprecates his role in public affairs.On 9 December 1860 he wrote to his brother from Washington: ‘it’s a greatlife; just what I wanted; and as I always feel that I am of real use here and cantake an active part in it all, it never tires.’ Lett. i. 204.

93 General Winfield Scott: (1786–1866), military hero and presidential candid-ate in the election of 1852 for the Whig party. He lost to Franklin Pierce.Became commander in chief of the army, retiring in 1861, after experien-

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cing every military crisis since the War of 1812 including the wars withEngland, Mexico, and the Indians.

94 wandering between two worlds: from Matthew Arnold’s ‘Stanzas from theGrand Chartreuse’ (1852, 1855).

95 Horace Gray: (1828–1902), prominent Boston lawyer, a Free Soiler andRepublican and friend of the family. Became a justice of the US SupremeCourt in 1881.

“My Lords and Gentlemen”: allusion to Blackstone’s Commentaries; see theIntroductory lecture and this common form of address.

96 Minister to England: Charles Francis Adams, Henry Adams’s father, wascommissioned minister to England on 20 March 1861.

Time had passed!: reference to a comic episode in Robert Greene’s 1594 playThe Honorable History of Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay.

97 Secretary of State: William H. Seward, secretary of state from 1861 to 1870.Charley Wilson: Charles Lush Wilson (d. 1878), editor of the Chicago DailyJournal.Assistant Secretary: Benjamin Moran (1820–86), an important official inthe legation whose extensive journal from 1857 to 1874 reveals his disap-proval of young Adams’s social ambitions.

April 13: Fort Sumter surrendered to the Confederates on 13 April 1861.Admiral Dupont: Samuel Francis Dupont (1803–65), commander of theSouth Atlantic blockading squadron, 1861–3.

98 1778: On the 1778 mission to France, John Adams found he could achievelittle since the affairs of the American commission were confused. He wassent back to France a year and half later as a peace negotiator but quarrelledwith Benjamin Franklin, who outranked him as minister. But by 1782,Adams singlehandedly succeeded in getting Holland to give diplomaticrecognition to the United States and in 1783 played an important part innegotiating the treaty of peace at Paris.

Cassius M. Clay: (1810–1903), liberal Kentucky statesman active in theanti-slavery movement. He embarrassed Minister Adams by publicly de-nouncing British policy. Privately, Henry Adams referred to him and toAnson Burlingame as ‘noisy jackasses’.

99 Tiberius Palmerston: Henry John Temple (Viscount Palmerston) (1784–1865), British prime minister 1855–8, 1859–65. The arrogance of Palmer-ston is likened to that of the notorious emperor Tiberius Claudius Nero.

100 Jefferson Davis: (1808–89), from Mississippi, Davis was secretary of warunder President Franklin Pierce and became the aristocratic president ofthe Confederate States, 1861–5. Educated at West Point, the US militaryacademy, he was a soldier, congressman, and secretary of war, 1853–7. Ledthe States’ Rights party in the Senate and supported slavery. Imprisonedfor two years at the end of the Civil War and pardoned in the amnesty of1868.

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100 Gladstone: William Ewart Gladstone (1809–98), British statesman, chan-cellor of the exchequer under Aberdeen (1852–5) and Lord Palmerston(1859–66); prime minister for a number of terms beginning in 1868.Established a system for national education (1870) and succeeded in insti-tuting a scheme of parliamentary reform. Wrote a number of books on re-ligion and Classical literature. The quotation is from Lord Morley’s TheLife of W. E. Gladstone, which Adams read in 1903.John Russell: Lord John Russell (1792–1878), an eminent and progressiveBritish statesman and historian who became foreign secretary underPalmerston in 1860. He was prime minister 1846–52 and 1865–67. He be-came an earl in 1861. His Recollections and Suggestions appeared in 1875.

102 “Quel chien de pays!”: ‘what a beastly country!’“Que tu es beau aujourd’hui, mon cher!”: ‘how handsome you are today, mydear fellow.’

Miss Burdett Coutts’s: (1814–1906), wealthy spinster who married at 67;noted for her philanthropy and social influence. Created a baroness in1871.

Duchess Dowager of Sutherland: Harriet Elizabeth Georgiana Leveson-Gower (1806–68), mistress of the wardrobe and intimate friend of QueenVictoria; her London residence, Stafford House, St James Place, was animportant social centre. In 1853, a famed protest of English ladies againstAmerican slavery was issued at her home.

103 battle of Bull Run: the first battle of Bull Run, 21 July 1861, barely 30 milesfrom Washington, was a rout of the inexperienced Union volunteers, whofled in panic across the Potomac. Only the disorganization and exhaustionof the Confederate soldiers prevented their overrunning the city.

Mason and Slidell: James Murray Mason (1798–1871) and James Slidell(1793–1871) were two Confederate agents, one on his way to London, theother to Paris, arrested by the USS San Jacinto, which stopped the Britishmail ship Trent, on which they were sailing, in November 1861. TheEnglish furore over the boarding of a neutral ship abated when the USAreleased the agents in December 1861. Mason had been a US senator,1848–61, and author of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Slidell was a USsenator from Louisiana, 1853–61.

Monckton Milnes: (1809–85), became Baron Houghton in 1863; member ofparliament, poet, socialite, literary patron, dilettante, and biographer ofKeats. Fryston Hall was the family home. At Cambridge he was a closefriend of Tennyson and Hallam and knew Thackeray. He influenced thequeen to appoint Tennyson Poet Laureate in 1850. Adams enjoyed hiscompany and social occasions.

104 William E. Forster: (1818–86), woollen manufacturer, member of parlia-ment, associated with John Bright and William Cobden in support of theNorth; opposed to recognition of the Confederacy. In the Life of the RightHonourable William Edward Forster (1888) and The Life, Letters and

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Friendships of Richard Monckton Milnes (1890), both by T. Wemyss Reid,Adams is depicted as receiving the news calmly.

the Prince Consort sickened and died: Prince Albert (1819–61). MarriedQueen Victoria in 1840. His death on 14 December 1861 plunged theQueen into mourning.

Trent Affair: the arrest in November 1861 of two confederate agents onboard the British mail ship Trent. See note on Mason and Slidell, p. 103.He had written . . . New York Times: Adams’s thirty-two letters appearedbetween 7 June 1861 and 4 January 1862.

a long account . . . published in the Boston Courier: 16 December 1861, repr.American Historical Review, 51 (Oct. 1945), 74–89.a long, satirical leader in the London Times: the Times editorial was followedthe next day by an even more sarcastic editorial in the London Examiner.Adams was vulnerable because of his patronizing comments on Britishsocial conventions.

Joe Parkes: (1798–1877), Birmingham lawyer, politician who acted as anintermediary between the Whigs and the Radicals during the agitation overthe reform bill; later became a parliamentary solicitor in London.

105 Commodore Wilkes: Charles Wilkes (1798–1877), commander of the SanJacinto which boarded the Trent. (See note on Mason and Slidell, p. 103.)“Surtout point de zèle!”: ‘above all, beware of zeal!’Mr. Delane: John Thaddeus Delane (1817–79), influential editor of theLondon Times.Russell Sturgis: (1805–87), Massachusetts-born banker and senior partnerof Baring Brothers, leading London bankers.

bankers . . . Baring: George Peabody: (1795–1869), Massachusetts-bornmerchant who moved to England in 1837 and became a London banker.Junius Morgan: (1813–90), international banker born in Boston; from1864–90 headed J. S. Morgan & Co., international banking firm. Fatherof J. P. Morgan (1837–1913), international financier. Joshua Bates:(1788–1864), Massachusetts-born head of Baring Brothers, London bank-ing institution. Adams partial to the firm since it helped the USA duringthe War of 1812. Thomas Baring: (1799–1873), member of Baring Brothersand member of parliament 1833–7 and 1844–73.

106 The Copperhead: derogatory epithet applied to Northern sympathizerswith the Confederacy; from the deadly Copperhead snake, which strikeswithout warning.

Pall Mall: fashionable walk in London frequented by high society whichwas largely hostile to the North in the Civil War.

débâcle: collapse. Disasters at the two battles of Bull Run and subsequentmilitary miscalculations appeared to spell defeat for the North.

107 Silenus: satyr-like companion of Dionysus in Greek mythology whose wor-ship was marked by orgiastic revels and whose laugh evoked a sensualist.

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108 Henry Brougham: (1778–1868), lawyer and one of the founders of theEdinburgh Review; member of parliament, lord chancellor, 1830–4, andprominent figure in public life known for his volubility in debate.

Hayward: Abraham Hayward (1801–84), essayist and raconteur whose co-pious contributions appeared in various nineteenth-century periodicals in-cluding the Quarterly Review. He published books on Lord Chesterfield,whist, and The Art of Dining.Venables: George Stovin Venables (1810–80), barrister and essayist; con-tributed to the Saturday Review.Henry Reeve: (1813–95), journalist with The Times of London and latereditor of the Edinburgh Review, 1855–95.daughter of Dr. Arnold to marry him: in 1850 Forster married Jane MarthaArnold, sister of Matthew Arnold and daughter of Dr Thomas Arnold,Anglican priest who became headmaster of Rugby and later RegiusProfessor of History at Oxford.

109 John Bright: (1811–89), leader of the Anti-Corn Law League and advocateof parliamentary reform and free trade.

Richard Cobden: (1804–65), member of parliament and a strong advocate offree trade and low tariffs.

Shaftesbury clique: Anthony Ashley Cooper (1801–85), seventh Earl ofShaftesbury, philanthropist and one of a group of upper-class social re-formers who thought slavery was not the issue of the Civil War and that theNorth could not defeat the South. The Emancipation Proclamation was notissued by Lincoln until 1863, largely as a political and military expedient.

Duke of Argyll: George Douglas Campbell, Duke of Argyll (1823–1900),member of the House of Lords and prominent in the Liberal party; out-spoken on many public questions. Married Elizabeth Leveson-Gower,daughter of the Duchess of Sutherland.

Frederick Cavendish: Lord Frederick Cavendish (1836–82), private secret-ary to Lord Granville, president of the privy council; assassinated bypolitical terrorists the day he took office as chief secretary of Ireland.Devonshire House was the family home.

Lyulph Stanley: Edward Lyulph Stanley (1839–1929), from a distin-guished family of landed aristocrats; became a Liberal politician active ineducational reform.

110 Lorne: Marquis of Lorne, John Douglas Sutherland Campbell (1845–1914), son of the eighth Duke of Argyll.

Sir Charles Trevelyan: (1806–86), governor of Madras, 1859–60, financeminister of India, 1862–65, known as a supporter of social reform and as aphilanthropist. One of Adams’s closest friends was Sir Charles’s son,George Otto Trevelyan, who was to become famous as the biographer ofLord Macaulay, his uncle.

Sir Charles and Lady Lyell: Sir Charles Lyell (1797–1875), leading Englishgeologist, author of the revolutionary Principles of Geology (1830–3), sym-

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pathetic to the United States during the Civil War; he figures importantlyin Chapter XV of the Education. Adams, who became a friend of Lyell’s, re-viewed the two-volume revised tenth edition of the Principles in theOctober 1868 issue of the North American Review. Entitled ‘The Principlesof Geology’, the review was signed Henry Brooks Adams.

Tom Hughes: (1822–96), English reformer and politician, supporter of theNorth in the Civil War and best known as the author of Tom Brown’s SchoolDays (1857) about life at Rugby under Dr Arnold.

111 escape of the rebel cruisers: the Confederacy had two ships built in England;they both escaped in 1862 before any pressure could be put on the Britishgovernment by the United States to prevent their departure.

McClellan: General George Brinton McClellan (1826–85) was appointedgeneral-in-chief of the Union armies by Lincoln in November 1861 butloss of confidence in his abilities meant reassignment as general of theArmy of the Potomac in March 1862. He was further discredited for hisfailure to capture Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital, in a battlelasting from April to July 1862.

second Bull Run: fought 29–31 August 1862, a disastrous defeat which can-celled the gains made by the Union armies in Virginia during the preced-ing year. Union casualties (15,000) were double those of the Confederates.

112 Army of the Potomac: Charles Francis Adams, jun., was a first lieutenant inthe First Massachusetts Cavalry and was sent to South Carolina on occu-pation duty. In August 1862 he was transferred to the Army of the Potomacand saw active duty as a captain at Antietam, Gettysburg, and other battles.He rose to the rank of colonel of the Fifth Massachusetts Cavalry, a blackregiment, and left the service as a brevet brigadier general.

Capuan comforts: Capua was an ancient and strategic Italian city on theAppian Way, noted for its luxury.

Consul Dudley: Thomas Haines Dudley (1819–93), US consul at Liverpool1861–72; in 1893 he reported that 130 steamers had left England to run theUnion blockade of the South.

113 Sir Henry Holland: (1788–1873), distinguished physician and author,physician to Queen Victoria and adviser to many individuals of note in thefirst half of the nineteenth century.

Mrs. Frank Hampton: Sally Baxter Hampton (1833–62). Thackeray mether in New York in 1852. She married Frank Hampton and moved toCharleston, South Carolina, where she died. Ethel Newcome, partly basedon Sally Hampton, is the heroine of Thackeray’s 1853–5 novel, TheNewcomes.

114 boorish Scotch jibes of Carlyle: most likely an allusion to Carlyle’s ‘TheAmerican Iliad in a Nutshell’, a short fictional dialogue published inMacmillan’s Magazine, 8 (Aug. 1863), 301. Carlyle had no faith in demo-cracy, as seen in his ‘Shooting Niagara and After’ (1867).

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115 famous memorandum of August 12, 1850: in her memorandum, the Queendemanded of Palmerston that he not alter or modify measures that she hadsanctioned.

Baron Brunnow: Philipp Brunnow (1797–1875), Russia’s permanent am-bassador to Great Britain, 1840–54, returned to London in 1858.

“C’est une peau de rhinocère!”: ‘He has the skin of a rhinoceros.’Lady Palmerston: born Emily Mary Lamb (1787–1869), she marriedPalmerston at the age of 52, two years after the death of her first husband.Their residence, Cambridge House, at 94 Piccadilly, received so manyvisitors that a second gate was cut in the wall to allow the carriages tostream through.

116 Borthwick: Sir Algernon Borthwick (1830–1908), proprietor of the Morn-ing Post.Congress of Vienna: assembled in 1814 at the end of the Napoleonic Wars toreorganize and repartition Europe. It became a symbol of cynical statecraft.

117 Lady Jocelyn: (1819–80), Frances Elizabeth Jocelyn, youngest daughter ofLady Palmerston by her first husband, the 5th Earl of Cowper; marriedLord Jocelyn in 1841.

General Butler’s famous woman-order at New Orleans: Benjamin FranklinButler (1818–93), Union military commander in New Orleans after its sur-render in 1862 ordered that women who publicly insulted his officersshould be treated as common prostitutes; in response Jefferson Davis,president of the Confederacy, decreed that if General Butler should ever becaptured he was to be hanged.

118 bêtise: piece of stupidity.119 Stirling of Keir: Sir William Stirling-Maxwell (1818–78), Spanish scholar,

historian, and member of parliament.

120 Laurence Oliphant: (1829–88), first secretary of the British legation inJapan, 1861, and author of the witty and satirical novel Piccadilly (1870).He came under the influence of the American mystic, Thomas LakeHarris, resigned his seat in parliament in 1868 and followed Harris to NewYork State. He finally broke with Harris, however, and resumed his writingand travelling.

The Owl: founded by Sir Algernon Borthwick of the Morning Post andothers, began publication in 1864, two years after this gathering.

Robert Louis Stevenson: (1850–94), Scottish novelist, essayist, and poet,author of Treasure Island (1882), Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886), andKidnapped (1886). Adams met him in 1890 in Samoa, where Stevensonspent his last years. On their meeting see HA II, 28 ff.Algernon Swinburne: (1837–1909), poet of sensuous verse; often censuredfor the pagan spirit of his poetry. The poems Adams heard recited appearedin Poems and Ballads (1866). During his third year at Oxford, Swinburneread modern history with Professor William Stubbs.

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121 Voltaire: (1694–1778), French sceptic and writer whose satirical Candide(1758) was a favourite of Adams.

Dante: Dante Alighieri (1265–1321), a politically active Florentine andprincipal poet of the Italian Renaissance, author of Vita nuova (c. 1293), aseries of lyric poems, linked by a prose narrative, which describe his pas-sion for his youthful love, Beatrice. Banished from Florence in 1309 be-cause of political intrigue and supposed opposition to the Pope and Charlesof Valois, Dante began a period of wandering, finally settling in Ravenna.During his exile he completed the Divina commedia (Divine Comedy),started c. 1307. In the poem, Dante is a figure guided by Virgil through Helland Purgatory; Beatrice, however, guides him in the final volume, Paradiso.The epic elevated vernacular Italian from daily language into art.

Villon: François Villon (1431–?), French lyric poet who often celebratedthe conditions of his fellows students of the Latin Quarter in Paris, al-though he had to flee after fatally wounding a priest in a street brawl. Aftera pardon, he returned, and wrote a series of poems, culminating in the longpoetic sequence, ‘Le Grand Testament’ (1461).

Victor Hugo: (1802–85), French Romantic poet and novelist, author ofNotre-Dame de Paris and Les Misérables; his finest poem is thought to be LaLegende des siècles.his most appreciative listener: Richard Monckton Milnes, Baron Houghton.The slightly misquoted lines are from poems by Milnes published in ASelection from the Works of Lord Houghton (1868).The story of his first day: when Swinburne visited Professor William Stubbs,also a clergyman, at his country parsonage, it was a Sunday, but Swinburnewas excused from church to rest from his journey. Swinburne donned ascarlet dressing gown with matching slippers and watched the parishionershead to church. They found him so striking a figure that they gathered infront of his window and forgot about the service until Stubbs rang thechurch bell a second time.

122 Encke’s comet: a sensational comet whose orbit was first calculated byJohann Franz Encke (1791–1865), a German astronomer. Adams usedEncke’s star maps when studying astronomy.

Alfred de Musset: (1810–57), French lyric poet and playwright; thought bymany to be the finest French love poet because of his expression of theRomantic temperament. In 1833 he met George Sand and a stormy ro-mance ensued which his series Nuits (Nights, 1835–7) describes.

123 Walter Savage Landor: (1775–1864), English author of elaborate and sculp-tured poetry and prose; treated historical and exotic themes, as in hisImaginary Conversations, a prose work, and Gebir, an epic poem.Geneva Conference: an 1872 meeting in which the USA advanced claims forindemnity against England for damage to American shipping by theConfederate raider Alabama, the ship built in England and known as ‘No.290’. Charles Francis Adams, Henry Adams’s father, represented theUnited States and successfully negotiated a settlement of $15 million.

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123 “Quant à moi, je crois en Dieu!”: ‘as for me, I believe in God!’“Chose sublime! un Dieu qui croit en Dieu!”: ‘how sublime! a God who be-lieves in God!’

Pickering’s: Basil Montague Pickering (1836–78), Swinburne’s first pub-lisher.

Moxon: Poems and Ballads (1866) was published by the firm that took overthe business of Edward Moxon (1801–58), British poet and publisher, re-taining his name. Reaction to Swinburne’s controversial volume was ex-treme because of its sensuous themes and imagery.

124 never met again: Adams is incorrect. He and Swinburne met in July 1864 ata breakfast party at Monckton Milnes’s home.

Ashley: Anthony Evelyn Ashley (1836–1907), English biographer of LordPalmerston.

128 Bethell: Richard Bethell (1800–73), 1st Lord Westbury, became BaronWestbury and lord chancellor in 1861, presiding over the House of Lordsand heading the British judiciary system. He also became a leading mem-ber of Palmerston’s cabinet.

Disraeli: Benjamin Disraeli (1804–81), leading statesman and politicalnovelist whose work had been read by the young Henry Adams. In parlia-ment he criticized Lord Russell’s foreign policy during the Civil War.Served two terms as prime minister.

Lord Robert Cecil: (1830–1903), statesman and political writer, opponent ofPalmerston’s government, influential writer on finance for the QuarterlyReview.Declaration of Paris: adopted in 1856 at the conclusion of the Treaty ofParis which ended the Crimean War. The Declaration attempted to settlethe maritime rights of nations in wartime. The United States belatedlymoved to subscribe to the Declaration in 1861 but negotiations broke downwhen England proposed that the ban against privateering in the documentshould not apply to the Confederates on the grounds that the war was aninternal dispute.

Lord Selborne: Roundell Palmer (1812–95), became solicitor general ofEngland in 1861 and attorney general in 1863; in 1872 he was created the1st Earl of Selborne.

Lord Granville: George Leveson-Gower (1815–91), diplomat and states-man, leader of the House of Lords during Liberal ministries after 1855.

129 Hegel’s metaphysical doctrine of the identity of opposites: Hegel (1770–1831),the distinguished German philosopher, believed in a system in whichthought and being moved in an endless continuum of thesis, antithesis, andsynthesis. Adams provisionally applied this idea to the paradoxes he saw inhuman behaviour.

Collier’s: Robet Porrett Collier (1817–86), counsel to the Admiralty, 1859;solicitor general, 1863–6; attorney general, 1868–71; author of variouslegal works.

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132 Granville’s “Life”: Lord Edward Fitzmaurice, The Life of Granville (1905).133 Emancipation Proclamation: Lincoln announced the preliminary

Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet on 22 September 1862, five daysafter the battle of Antietam; it was to take effect on 1 January 1863.

137 The cat’s-paw theory: based on the fable of the monkey who used a cat’s pawto draw chestnuts from the fire. The suggestion is that Palmerston was themonkey and used Russell to save the situation precipitated by Gladstone.

Sir George Grey: (1799–1882), home secretary under Palmerston andRussell.

139 Henry James: (1843–1916), distinguished New York-born novelist andshort-story writer who became a close friend of Adams’s. Best known forhis fascination with European culture in works like Daisy Miller (1879),Portrait of a Lady (1881), The Wings of the Dove (1902), and TheAmbassadors (1903). His account of his return to America after an absenceof twenty years, The American Scene (1907), appeared the year Adamsbegan to circulate his privately printed version of the Education.

James received one of these copies for comment and revision, Adamstelling him in a letter of 6 May 1908 that ‘the volume is a mere shield of pro-tection in the grave. I advise you to take your own life in the same way, inorder to prevent biographers from taking it in theirs.’ In the same letter,Adams added that he intended the Education to be ‘a completion and math-ematical conclusion from the previous volume about the ThirteenthCentury,—the three concluding chapters of this being only a working outto Q.E.D. of the three concluding chapters of that.’ Lett. vi. 136.

140 Punch: the satirical illustrated weekly London magazine founded in 1841.141 nearly as dead as any of them: at the time of writing this, Adams was nearly

67, and, although vigorous for his years, enjoyed posing as a man for whomlife was virtually over. He sustained this pose until his death at 80 in 1918.

143 Rams: colloquial term for iron-clad warships with heavy prows for piercingan enemy ship. A shipyard in Liverpool had contracted to build two suchships for the Confederate navy.

October, 1862: Russell, as foreign minister, sought to betray Adams and theAmerican legation by proposing mediation and diplomatic recognition ofthe Confederacy.

1815: Adams refers to the Congress of Vienna, which represented thesuccess of the old-world statecraft by restoring the status quo through thearbitrary decisions of a few powerful statesmen. The error was in theirinability to recognize the United States as a new world power.

144 Lairds: William Laird and Son, shipbuilders at Birkenhead, the seaport ofLiverpool.

145 Vicksburg: chief city on the Mississippi between Memphis and NewOrleans and of great strategic importance during the Civil War. The siegeof the city began under Grant on 18 May 1863 and by 4 July the garrison of37,000 Confederate soldiers surrendered.

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145 Gettysburg: the decisive battle of the Civil War, 1–3 July 1863, whereGeneral Meade defeated General Lee. The Union troops suffered 23,000dead, the Confederates, 31,000.

1813: fifty years earlier, 1813 opened with the Americans triumphantthrough a series of morale-boosting naval victories over the British, al-though they were less successful on land. A century earlier in 1763, therewas a far greater turning-point in American history: the Treaty of Paris,ending the Seven Years’ War and eliminating France as a threat to theAmerican colonies.

as the files of the Times proved: Charles Francis Adams, as minister, and hisson, as secretary, constantly complained in letters of the unwillingness ofThe Times to report news which was contrary to its position regarding theConfederacy.

147 “It would be superfluous . . . this is war!”: the famous remark is in a noteCharles Francis Adams wrote to Earl Russell, 5 September 1863, as a cul-mination of a series of protests. Although Adams did not know it, Russellhad already, on 2 September, ordered that the ships be detained.

148 four generations: a verbal slip for ‘three’; the notables of the three gen-erations were John Adams as Revolutionary leader against England andenvoy to the peace negotiations; John Quincy Adams as negotiator of theTreaty of Ghent ending the War of 1812; and Charles Francis Adams, asminister to England. Henry Adams was himself a member of the fourthgeneration.

Lord North: Frederick North (1732–92), prime minister under George III,offered a conciliatory peace proposal in November 1777. But it came toolate: the American alliance with France had already been concluded. LordNorth resigned after Burgoyne’s surrender with his army at Saratoga on 17October.

George Canning: (1770–1827), foreign secretary 1807–9, whose intransi-gence helped to push the two nations towards war.

149 Geneva Conference in 1872: where Charles Francis Adams was the Amer-ican arbitrator. The award amounted to $15 million in gold. (See note top. 123, above.)

155 went to see Sothern act Dundreary: Edward Askew Sothern (1826–81),English comic actor famous for his portrayal of the fatuous LordDundreary in the comedy Our American Cousin. The long Dundreary side-whiskers set a male fashion for many years.

157 Lord Brougham: Lord Henry Peter Brougham (1778–1868). A reference tohis sustained attack in parliament against the notorious Orders in Councilwhich were a main cause of the War of 1812.

Lord Stanley: Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley, Earl of Derby(1815–91).

Fowell Buxton: Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton (1837–1915) entered parlia-ment in 1865, serving three years; he later became president of the anti-slavery league in England.

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Richmond Government: Richmond, Virginia was the capital of the Con-federacy, formerly known as the Confederate States of America.

158 Cockburn: Sir Alexander James Edmund Cockburn (1802–80), chief jus-tice of the Queen’s Bench and controversial British representative in theAlabama Claims arbitration.

159 Lindsay: William Schaw Lindsay (1816–77), member of parliament.Laird’s of Liverpool designed the first iron-clad ships and was their chiefmanufacturer.

Mr. Roebuck: John Arthur Roebuck (1801–79), member of parliament forSheffield for thirty years who introduced a motion proposing that Englandenter negotiations with the great powers (principally France) to recognizethe Confederacy. France sought a weakened USA so it could extendFrench influence into Mexico.

161 Professor Beesly: Professor Edward Beesly (1831–1915), professor of his-tory at University College, London who wrote a series of ‘Letters to theWorking Class’.

made a report: Adams’s report to William Seward, dated 27 March 1863,eventually appeared in the New England Quarterly, December 1942.

162 Sir Francis Doyle: (1810–88), poet who became professor of poetry atOxford in 1867, although his background was law and he held various gov-ernment appointments, becoming in 1869 commissioner of customs. Hewas best known for his ballads.

Sir Robert Cunliffe: (1839–1905), an affable baronet active in LiberalUnionist politics; one of Adams’s oldest English friends and a favouritecompanion.

163 the ten-pound voter: a qualification for voting for those who did not own realestate, admitting to the vote those paying an annual rent of at least £10.

Newman: John Henry Newman (1801–90), left the Anglican priesthood forthe Roman Catholic church and became a cardinal in 1879. Author of thefamous autobiography Apologia pro vita sua (1864), he also wrote influen-tial works on educational and moral questions.

Ruskin: John Ruskin (1819–1900), the most influential art critic of his timewho also published on economics and sociology. Modern Painters (5 vols.,1843–60) profoundly altered the assessment of painting and sculpture dur-ing the nineteenth century. His other important texts include The Stonesof Venice (1851–3), Lectures on Architecture and Painting (1854), works ofsocial criticism, Unto this Last (1860) and Sesame and Lilies (1865), and anautobiography, Praeterita. In 1869 he became the first Slade Professor ofthe Fine Arts at Oxford.

164 Henry Reeve: (1813–95), editor of the Edinburgh Review, 1855–95.Frank Palgrave: Francis Turner Palgrave (1824–97), art and literary criticas well as poet and anthologist. Chapter XIV of the Education presents a de-tailed portrait of Palgrave. Close friend of Arnold and Tennyson, the latter

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helping him with his Golden Treasury of Songs and Lyrics published in1861, an immediate nineteenth-century classic. In 1885 he was elected tothe chair of poetry at Oxford which he held until 1895.

164 Mrs. Grote: Mrs Harriet Grote (1792–1878), known for her love of brightlycoloured clothing. On seeing her with a rose-coloured turban, the writerSydney Smith remarked, ‘Now I know the meaning of grotesque.’ Herhusband George Grote was a disciple of John Stuart Mill and a distin-guished historian of Greece.

Grotius: Hugo Grotius (1583–1645), statesman and learned jurist.Puffendorf!: Samuel Pufendorf (1632–94), occasionally spelt Puffendorf,was the most noted student of Grotius’s work on international law.

Forain: Jean Louis Forain (1852–1931), famous for his satirical etchings ofthe French bourgeoisie.

“Greville Memoirs”: Charles Cavendish Fulke Greville (1794–1865) keptan insider’s diary while clerk of the privy council which he bequeathed toHenry Reeve. When the first section was published, covering the years1814–37, the queen accused him of disloyalty.

165 saurians of the prime: allusion to Coleridge’s ‘Rime of the Ancient Mariner’(1797–8) and meaning extinct primeval lizard-like monsters.

166 American Peer of the Realm: in the British peerage, a nobleman of one of thefollowing ranks: duke, marquess, earl, viscount, baron. As a private secret-ary to the minister, Adams both understood and took pleasure in theformalities of nobility and presentations at court.

167 Balmoral: the royal residence in Scotland, acquired in 1852.168 Lady Margaret Beaumont: Lady Margaret de Burgh Canning (d. 1888),

first wife of Wentworth Beaumont. Adams continued his friendly acquaint-ance with the Beaumonts into the 1900s.

Lord Lyndhurst: John Singleton Copley, Baron Lyndhurst (1772–1863),British jurist and statesman, son of the famous American-born painterJohn Singleton Copley. One-time member of parliament.

Lord Campbell: John Campbell, Baron Campbell (1779–1861), member ofparliament who became chief justice of the Queen’s Bench and was lordchancellor, 1859–61. One should note that although the chapter title isdated 1864, the events in the chapter range between 1861 and 1865.

169 General Dick Taylor: Richard Taylor (1826–79), son of President ZacharyTaylor, was a Confederate general in the Civil War, settling afterwards inWashington.

Devonshire House: in Piccadilly, London, the palatial residence of the Dukeof Devonshire.

Mme. de Castiglione: Virginia Verases, Contessa di Castiglione (1835–99).After her marriage in 1854 to Conte Francesco di Castiglione, she exercisedgreat influence at the court of Napoleon III in Paris from 1856 until 1870when he was deposed.

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Stafford House: London residence of the Duke and Duchess of Suther-land.

170 Arthur Pendennis: semi-aristocratic hero of Thackeray’s novel, The Historyof Pendennis (1848–50). He begins his career as an idle and conceited uni-versity man but slowly reforms his ways.

Barnes Newcome: unattractive snob in Thackeray’s novel The Newcomes(1853–5).

171 Patti . . . Gretchen: Patti: Adelina Patti (1843–1919), coloratura sopranowho made her London début at Covent Garden. Cherubino is CountAlmaviva’s page in Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro. Gretchen is theGerman diminutive of Margaret, Faust’s love in Goethe’s Faust, calledMarguerite in Gounod’s opera Faust—which role Patti sang at CoventGarden in 1863.

172 Renan’s Christ: Joseph Ernest Renan (1823–92), French historian andphilosopher. His Life of Jesus (1863) rejected the claim of divinity for Jesusand was widely denounced. See note to p. 56, above.

Jowett: Benjamin Jowett (1817–93), Regius Professor of Greek at Oxfordand famous for his translations of the Dialogues of Plato (1871),Thucydides (1881), the Politics of Aristotle (1885), and Plato’s Republic(1894). In 1870 he became master of Balliol College, Oxford and later vice-chancellor of the university.

Milman: Henry Hart Milman (1791–1868), English clergyman and pro-fessor of poetry at Oxford, noted for his History of Christianity under theEmpire (1840).Froude: James Anthony Froude (1818–94), noted writer on English history,contributor to numerous Victorian periodicals and editor of Fraser’sMagazine, 1860–74. Author of a twelve-volume history of England (1856–70) and the four-volume Life of Thomas Carlyle (1882).Bishop Wilberforce: Bishop Samuel Wilberforce (1805–73), son of anti-slavery leader William Wilberforce, dramatically routed at the 1860 meet-ing of the British Association for the Advancement of Science by ThomasHuxley when he attacked Darwin’s Origin of Species.

174 Charles Milnes Gaskell: (1842–1919), author and politician, member ofparliament, 1885–92, became one of Adams’s closest English friends withwhom he maintained a long and important correspondence.

James Milnes Gaskell: (1810–73), member of parliament, 1832–68, lord ofthe treasury 1841–6. Friend of Adams’s with whom he later travelled toRome.

William Everett: (1839–1910), Adams’s cousin as son of Edward Everett. Agraduate of Harvard and Trinity College, Cambridge, taught Latin atHarvard the same years Adams taught history; US congressman, 1893–5.

175 Heptarchy: the period of the early English kingdoms from the coming ofthe Anglo-Saxons in 449 to the union of the kingdoms in 829.

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175 Arthur Hallam: (1811–33), intimate friend of Tennyson’s who died un-expectedly at the age of 22. Commemorated by Tennyson in his elegy, InMemoriam (1850).Manning: Henry Edward Manning (1808–92), prominent member of theOxford Movement until his conversion to the Roman Catholic church; be-came Archbishop of Westminster in 1865 and a cardinal in 1875.

176 Wynns of Wynstay: Charles Watkins Wynn (1755–1850), politician andfriend of the poet Southey, member of parliament 1831–50; Sir HenryWynn (1783–1856), his younger brother, diplomat and private secretary in1801 to Lord Granville of the foreign office.

Wenlock Abbey: Wenlock Abbey, the remains of a great monastic order ofCluniac Benedictines founded in 1017. Adams visited the abbey, owned byhis friends the Gaskells, in early October 1864.

Wenlock Edge and the Wrekin: in Shropshire, where to the southwest ofMuch Wenlock rises the ridge of Wenlock Edge and to the north, the isol-ated hill of the Wrekin, a remnant of pre-Cambrian geological formations.

177 The Cornice in vettura: Cornice: variant spelling of Corniche, roads cutspectacularly through the cliffs above the French and Italian Rivieras onthe Mediterranean sea. vettura: a carriage drawn by horses.

178 Cora Pearl: courtesan of Napoleon III’s Second Empire who died inpoverty in Paris.

at loggerheads with the Senate: over reconstruction policy: Johnson wantedto carry out the moderate policy of Lincoln but met bitter opposition fromthe Radical Republicans under Thaddeus Stevens, who pushed through acivil rights bill early in 1866 over Johnson’s veto.

179 Charles Adams: see note to p. 40 above.180 Portland Place: No. 54 Portland Place was the residence of the American

minister during the later years of their stay. They earlier resided at nearbyNo. 5 Upper Portland Place.

181 Turner: Joseph M. Turner (1775–1851), distinguished English landscapepainter and watercolourist best known for his abstract canvases filled withlight and colour. Representative works include The Fighting Temeraire(1839) and Rain, Steam and Speed (1844). Adams, like Ruskin, greatly ad-mired his paintings and later acquired two of his works, one a watercolour.

Sir Christopher Wren: (1632–1723), the most famous English architect,whose most celebrated structure is St Paul’s Cathedral in London. Wasprofessor of astronomy at Oxford and a founder of the Royal Society.Following the Great Fire of London of 1666, Wren worked feverishly to re-build the city and reputedly built fifty-two churches. He designed the newSt Paul’s in 1669.

Sotheby’s: famous London auction house and art dealers founded by JohnSotheby in Covent Garden in 1744. It transferred to the Strand in 1803.Coin collecting was the hobby of Henry Adams’s father; his son enlarged

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the collection and then bequeathed it to the Massachusetts HistoricalSociety.

William Hunt: (1824–79), American painter and follower of the Frenchartist Millet. Henry and William James both studied with Hunt at Newportshortly before the Civil War.

182 Old Sir Francis: Sir Francis Palgrave (1788–1861), English historian andson of Meyer Cohen, a Jew, who became a Christian convert in 1823.Author of the History of Normandy and England (1851–64). His distin-guished sons, noted a few lines down, were Francis Turner Palgrave(1824–97), editor of the Golden Treasury of Songs and Lyrics (1864);William Gifford Palgrave (1826–88) who became a Jesuit missionary inSyria and Arabia, although he left the Jesuits in 1865 and published a nar-rative of his journey; Sir Reginald Palgrave (1829–1904), an authority onbanking and economics; Sir Robert Harry Palgrave (b. 1827), also an au-thority on banking.

Holman Hunt: William Holman Hunt (1827–1910), a leading Pre-Raphaelite painter noted for his portrait of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, withwhom he once shared a studio. Among his best-known works are The Lightof the World (1854) and The Scapegoat (1856). His memoir, Pre-Raphaelitism and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (1905), is a useful record.

John Richard Green: (1837–83), historian celebrated for his popular andreadable Short History of the English People (1874). A London clergyman,he subsequently became librarian to the archbishop of Canterbury atLambeth Palace. He and his wife became favourites of Henry Adams afterAdams’s marriage in 1872 to Marian ‘Clover’ Hooper (1844–85) and theirwedding journey to England, the continent, and Egypt.

183 Thomas Woolner: (1825–92), poet and sculptor, member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, formed in 1848 to advocate the direct study ofnature liberated from the academic rules developed under Raphael.

Stopford Brooke: (1832–1916), English clergyman who wrote a Primer ofEnglish Literature (1876) and A History of English Literature (1892).

Christie’s: leading London auction house and art dealer founded by JamesChristie in 1766.

Sir Anthony Westcomb: (d. 1752), spelled with a final ‘e’ in the Sotheby’scatalogue, one of the first collectors of drawings in England. The Sotheby’ssale catalogue of drawings for 5 July 1867 lists two drawings by Rembrandtbut one by Raphael. Presumably, the drawing attributed to Raphael was inone of the two lots listed under ‘Miscellaneous’.

184 “Take it down to Reed”: to George W. Reed (1819–87), keeper of prints andmanuscripts at the British Museum and an expert on Italian engravers ofthe fifteenth century.

Parnasso: a reference to the fresco in one of the Raphael rooms in theVatican representing a crowd of poets and musicians on mount Parnassus.

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185 Marc Antonio: Marcantonio Raimondi (1475–1534), one of the majorItalian engravers of the Renaissance, who made engravings of works ofRaphael, Dürer, and others.

Libri: Guglielmo Libri (1803–69), mathematician, historian of Italianmathematics, and bibliographer, who published a catalogue of books onItaly. He was a political refugee living in London.

186 “Or questo credo . . . non hai piu dolore”: ‘Now this I well believe that an(elleria?) | Offends you so much that it has affected your heart. | Becauseyou are great you have not your wish; | You see and you no longer believein your valor. | All jealousies have already passed: | You are of stone: andyou no longer suffer pain.’ (trans. Professor J. Fucilla, NorthwesternUniversity).

Whistler: James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834–1903), American ex-patriate artist trained in St Petersburg, associated with the FrenchImpressionists, resident of England where his wit and eccentricities madehim noticed. Fascinated by the Japanese print, he none the less replacedcontrasting colours with a pervading grey tone, generating controversyover his flamboyant and unusual treatment of line and colour. At the centreof a celebrated lawsuit in 1878 resulting from Ruskin’s condemnation ofWhistler’s paintings exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery in London.Whistler sued when he read the following by Ruskin: ‘[I] never expected tohear a coxcomb ask two hundred guineas for flinging a pot of paint in thepublic’s face.’ The highly publicized trial resulted in a pyrrhic victory forWhistler, who was awarded only a farthing in damages. The publicity, how-ever, was inestimable. See Whistler’s The Gentle Art of Making Enemies(1890).

187 Buckle: Henry Thomas Buckle (1821–62), British historian, pioneer in theuse of statistical and sociological data for historical prediction. Author ofHistory of Civilization in England (1857–61).Kinglake: Alexander William Kinglake (1809–91), travel writer and his-torian who wrote an eight-volume history of the Crimean War.

Silas Wegg: character of dubious virtue in Dickens’s Our Mutual Friend(1865) who is employed by Mr Boffin to read to him from the ‘old familiarDecline-and-Fall-off-the-Rooshan-Empire’.

Monkbarns: Jonathan Oldbuck, laird of Monkbarns, the eponymous anti-quary of Sir Walter Scott’s novel The AntiquaryCaptain John Smith: (1579–1631), English adventurer and writer, presid-ent of the colony of Virginia, 1608–9. Adams’s article disproved Smith’saccount of his rescue by Pocahontas.

189 Charles Norton: (1827–1908), American author and professor of history ofart at Harvard, 1874–98. He edited the North American Review with JamesRussell Lowell, 1864–8. Among his books were Church Building in theMiddle Ages (1876), a translation of Dante (1891), and an edition of theletters of Carlyle and Emerson (1883). He also helped to found The Nationin 1865.

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190 Tyndall: John Tyndall (1820–93), English scientist and popular lecturerinvolved for many years in a controversy over glacier motion based on in-vestigations he did with Thomas Huxley in the Alps. He also did researchon heat, light, and sound. His works include The Glaciers of the Alps (1860),Mountaineering (1861), and Fragments of Science (1871).Huxley: Thomas Huxley (1825–95), English biologist and palaeontologistwho advocated applying the scientific method to all questions. Popularizerof Darwin’s ideas. His degree was in medicine but by 1854 he was namedprofessor of natural history at the School of Mines. Became president ofthe Royal Society in 1883 and was recognized as England’s foremost bio-logist; he also coined the term ‘agnostic’. Among his books were Man’sPlace in Nature (1863), Science and Morals (1886), and Evolution and Ethics(1893).

Marxist: a follower of Karl Marx (1818–83), author of The CommunistManifesto (1848); see notes to pp. 33, 55, above.

191 Comteist: one who identified with the positivist philosophy of AugusteComte (1798–1857).

“Principles”: Sir Charles Lyell’s tenth edition of his Principles of Geology,which incorporated Darwin’s theory of evolution, appeared in 1866.Adams, who reviewed the book, was sceptical of Darwin’s ideas at this time.

193 Terebratula: a genus of brachiopods (molluscoida) which includes manyliving and some fossil pieces.

Catherine Olney in “Northanger Abbey”: a mistake for Catherine Morland,the heroine of Jane Austen’s satire of Gothic fiction, Northanger Abbey,written in 1797 but not published until 1818.

Ludlow Castle: twelfth-century ruin in Ludlow, Shropshire.Stokesay: a castle near Shrewsbury.Boscobel: mansion in Shropshire famed as the house where in a secretchamber Charles II took refuge in 1651.

Uriconium: a rich Roman city near Wrekin Hill whose ruins were being un-covered.

Roman Campagna: the undulating plain that surrounded Rome which con-tained towns and villas.

Marches: the border regions of England and Wales.194 Cader Idris: a mountain in northwestern Wales.

Caer Caradoc: a mountain in Shropshire.Caractacus: king of ancient Britain, c.50 ce.Offa: King of Mercia, c.757–96.Sir Roderick Murchison: (1792–1871), Scottish geologist associated withLyell and author of The Silurian System (1838), which described theSilurian horizon of the Paleozoic era.

Cambrian: the earliest geological period of the Paleozoic era.

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194 Severn: second longest river in England, which rises in Wales and crossesthe plain of Shrewsbury in Shropshire.

La Fontaine: Jean de la Fontaine (1621–95), French poet and dramatistrenowned for his Fables (12 vols., 1668–94).“ . . . qu’un homme”: from the dedicatory poem-fable to the Duke of Bur-gundy, ‘The Companion of Ulysses’: ‘Everything considered, I maintain inconclusion | that villain for villain | It is better to be a wolf than a man.’

195 Limulus: the horseshoe or king crab, thought to be a survivor of a genus ofone of the earliest geological periods.

Cestracion Philippi: the so-called Port Jackson shark. For Adams’s scientificviews see William Jordy, Henry Adams: Scientific Historian (1952).Paley: William Paley (1743–1805), English theologian; his famous analogyof God as the inferred watchmaker occurs in his Natural Theology (1802).

196 Athanasian creed: a creedal affirmation attributed to Athanasius (296–373ce) used in Greek, Roman, and Anglican churches.

Bluebeard: a popular story by Perrault, translated from the French intoEnglish c. 1729. Tells of a wicked rich man whose disfigured face is coveredby a blue beard. He obtains the hand of Fatima, who is warned not to openthe door to his treasury while he is away. She does and discovers the bodiesof his previous mistresses. On his return he discovers her crime and ordersher death but she is rescued.

197 restrict currency: As a war measure in 1862, the US government issuedpaper money, treasury notes called ‘greenbacks’ not redeemable in specie,i.e. gold coin. The notes were made legal tender for the payment of obliga-tions and became fiat money. At one point, however, they dropped to 35cents (in gold) on the dollar. They were not redeemable in specie until 1879.

198 The editor accepted both: ‘British Finance in 1816’ appeared anonymously inthe North American Review for April 1867; ‘The Bank of England Restric-tion 1797–1820’ appeared anonymously in October 1867.

199 Pierpont Morgan: (1837–1913), leading American international banker.Rockefellers: John D. Rockefeller (1839–1937), founder of Standard OilCompany and one of America’s richest men who became one of its fore-most philanthropists.

William C. Whitney: (1841–1904), successful New York lawyer who be-came a financier and, between 1885–89, secretary of the navy; also a notedsocialite and sportsman. John La Farge completed two remarkable stained-glass windows (‘Spring’ and ‘Autumn’) for Whitney’s home, designed byStanford White, at Old Westbury, Long Island. Adams admired the win-dows when he viewed them in a New York studio in 1903 (Lett. v. 436).William McKinley: (1843–1901), governor of Ohio, president of the US,1897–1901.

Mark Hanna: (1837–1904), Ohio industrialist, leader of the Republicanhierarchy in the state and political boss of national influence. Rescued his

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friend William McKinley (elected US president in 1897) from bankruptcyand successfully manœuvred his nomination for the presidency. Appointeda US senator in 1897 by the governor of Ohio to replace John Sherman,who became secretary of state; resigned in 1898, to be replaced first byWilliam R. Day and then by Adams’s closest friend, John Hay, that sameyear. Later, Hanna became an adviser to Theodore Roosevelt. He, alongwith Hay, Adams, McKinley, and William Randolph Hearst all haveprominent roles in Gore Vidal’s novel of America at the end of the nine-teenth century, Empire (1987).Richardson: Henry Hobson Richardson. See note to p. 51, above.La Farge: John La Farge. See note to p. 58, above.

200 November, 1858: Adams is wrong by a month. It was October 1858.201 Brevoort House: a fashionable New York hotel.202 a belated reveller, or a scholar-gipsy like Matthew Arnold’s: reference to two

poems by Arnold: ‘The Strayed Reveller’ (1849) and ‘The Scholar Gipsy’(1853). The latter contains the lines appropriate to Adams’s mood: ‘ . . .this strange disease of modern life, | With its sick hurry and divided aims.’

officers of the customs: Adams’s comparison is anachronistic, more appro-priate to 1900 than to 1868, since Jewish immigration from Russian Polandwas negligible in 1868. The pogroms in Russia and Russian Poland in 1881prompted the wholesale emigration of impoverished Jews to America.Adams’s anti-semitic views, more prevalent in his correspondence than inthe Education, date from the 1890s when he was exposed to the French anti-semitic movement which culminated in the Dreyfus affair, a scandal con-cerning a Jewish officer falsely accused of treason in 1894 but vindicatedand pardoned in 1906.

Desbrosses Street: a commercial street leading to a New York ferry.Fifth Avenue: in 1868, the New York street with the most palatial andfashionable town homes.

Commodore Vanderbilt: Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794–1877), began life as aboatman, becoming a steamship and railroad magnate and a wealthy WallStreet financier.

Jay Gould: (1836–92), American capitalist who from humble beginnings be-came a figure of great affluence and influence, notorious for his acquisitionand manipulation of railroads. He was the one who forced Charles FrancisAdams, jun., Henry Adams’s brother, from the presidency of the UnionPacific Railroad.

204 Back Bay: reclaimed land of the inner harbour in Boston, a project startedin 1856 and completed in 1886.

205 brother John . . . wrong side: John Quincy Adams II (1833–94) was elected tothe Massachusetts legislature in 1869 on the Democratic ticket and becameleader of the party in the state. He was an unsuccessful candidate forgovernor on two occasions and in 1872 at a splinter convention was nomin-ated for vice-president of the USA but received only one electoral vote.

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205 Newport: Newport, Rhode Island, at this period the most fashionable sum-mer resort in the USA, favoured by politicians, writers, businessmen, and,of course, the wealthy.

the Ant and Grasshopper: the opening poem in the Fables (1668) of Jean de laFontaine. A moral fable of the industrious ant who laid up provision for thewinter and the improvident grasshopper who sang all summer.

Edward Atkinson: (1827–1905), prominent Boston insurance executive andliberal economist who wrote on social and economic reform.

206 Horace Greeley: (1811–72), journalist, author, and politician who in 1841founded the New York Tribune which had tremendous influence on polit-ical thought; he strongly supported the abolition of slavery. He led theRepublican party during the Civil War and in 1872 was nominated forpresident but suffered a crushing defeat.

Charles A. Dana: (1819–97), journalist and writer, assistant secretary ofwar, 1863–4, and part owner of the New York Sun in 1868, bringing a pop-ular style to journalism.

Bennett: James Gordon Bennett (1795–1872), founded the New YorkHerald in 1835. In 1869 he sent Stanley on the African expedition to findLivingstone.

207 William Cullen Bryant: (1794–1878), popular American poet and journal-ist who became editor and part owner of the Evening Post in 1829. Adamsdid in fact contribute a number of pieces to the Nation and the EveningPost. Bryant’s first book, Poems (1821), contained the much admired‘Thanatopsis’, written when he was 17. In 1871 he translated Homer intoblank verse.

General Sherman: William Tecumseh Sherman (1820–91), born in Ohio,famous in the Civil War for his ‘march to the sea’ from Atlanta to Savannah,Georgia in 1864.

208 President Andrew Johnson: (1808–75), succeeded to the presidency on theassassination of Lincoln in 1865. A self-taught and self-made man whobegan life as a tailor in a small Tennessee mountain village. His supposedindulgence of the defeated South led to strong criticism from NewEngland. Impeachment proceedings against him in 1868 failed but his ad-ministration was already discredited when Adams met him.

209 Hugh McCulloch: (1805–95), lawyer and banker. As secretary of the treas-ury, he recommended a return to the gold standard after the Civil War butwas stopped by Congress.

210 Frank Walker: (1840–97), Boston-born statistician and political econom-ist. In 1868 appointed superintendent of the 1870 census; subsequentlypresident of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

211 Judge Curtis: Benjamin R. Curtis (1809–74), associate justice of the USSupreme Court, 1851–7.

Marshall’s school: John Marshall (1755–1835), chief justice of the USSupreme Court, (1801–35) who established the supremacy of the court on

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constitutional matters. The ‘legal tender’ case dealt with the legality of the‘greenbacks’ issued during the Civil War; their market value fluctuatedwith the activity of speculators. The government was committed to theirfunctioning as legal tender but at a trial of 1871 the Supreme Court heldthat they were unconstitutional and not legal; at a second decision in 1871,after two new justices were appointed, the Court reversed itself.

the Chief Justice: Salmon Portland Chase (1808–73), secretary of the treas-ury, 1861–4; chief justice of the Supreme Court, 1864–73.

213 La Fayette Square: the park just across Pennsylvania Avenue from theWhite House with a massive statue of President Andrew Jackson in thecentre and one of the French general Lafayette, a hero of the RevolutionaryWar, in one of the corners. The symbolic centre of Washington and whereHenry Adams and John Hay would build their homes.

Mr. Clark Mills’s . . . Andrew Jackson: Clark Mills (1815–83), Americansculptor who created the statute of Andrew Jackson on a rearing horsewhich dominated Lafayette Square. The enormous bronze made Adamsthink of the prancing wooden horses often found in the nursery. The frontwindow of Adams’s home on the square, built in 1886, would face the over-powering figure.

Sam Hooper: (1808–75), prominent merchant, congressman, and ally ofSecretary of the Treasury Chase during the Civil War.

214 Mr. Mullett: A. B. Mullett (1834–93), American architect influenced by theornamental architecture of Napoleon III’s Paris; designed the State, War,and Navy Buildings in Washington, the last a colossal version of a Frenchchateau.

Sam Ward: (1814–84), socialite, financier, and lobbyist who was called‘King of the Lobby’; an influential intimate of statesmen.

Smithsonian: Smithsonian Institute, scientific and historical museum ori-ginally consisting of a red-brick castle-like structure on the Mall inWashington founded in 1846 as a result of a gift from the EnglishmanJames Smithson. John Quincy Adams, noted for his promotion of science,laboured for eight years after he left the presidency, to establish themuseum in Washington.

215 friends on the press . . . Sam Bowles: Nordhoff: Charles Nordhoff (1830–1901), journalist and managing editor of the New York Evening Post. MuratHalstead: (1829–1908), editor and publisher of the Cincinnati Commercial.Henry Watterson: (1840–1921), editor of the Louisville Courier-Journal.Sam Bowles: (1826–78), editor and publisher of the Springfield Republican.

216 Moorfield Storey: (1845–1929), Massachusetts lawyer and writer on legaland social reform; became co-editor with Sam Hoar (1845–1904) of theAmerican Law Review in 1873.Dewey: George Dewey (1837–1917), a lieutenant commander in the navy;in 1898 he would become ‘the hero of Manila Bay’, destroying the Spanishfleet in the Philippines.

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217 he printed it in April: ‘American Finance, 1865–1869’ appeared anonym-ously in the Edinburgh Review, 129 (April 1869), 504–33.

218 the same review: ‘The Session’, ‘Civil Service Reform’, North AmericanReview, 108 (April 1869), 610–40; 109 (Oct. 1869), 443–76.1870: in that year Adams became editor of the North American Review,which was then a struggling quarterly. He resigned in 1877. The change herefers to actually started with the founding of the Atlantic Monthly (1858),the Nation (1865), and Harper’s Weekly (1857).Bret Harte: (1836–1902), American short-story writer, novelist, poet, andhumorist; well known for his colourful short stories about the far West,such as ‘The Outcasts of Poker Flat’ which appeared in 1868 in the Over-land Monthly from San Francisco, which he edited. From 1878 to 1885 heserved as US consul in Germany and Scotland. He finally settled in England.

According to Lowell . . . forever on the Throne: from James Russell Lowell’spoem ‘The Present Crisis’, which in the original reads ‘Truth forever onthe scaffold, Wrong forever on the throne.’

219 “Let us have peace”: said by Ulysses S. Grant (1822–85) on accepting nom-ination for the presidency, 29 May 1868.

221 Hamilton Fish: (1808–93), governor of New York, 1848–50; later, USsenator and secretary of state, 1869–77.

Jacob D. Cox: (1827–1900), governor of Ohio, 1866–8, secretary of the in-terior, 1869–70. Introduced the merit system in his department which ledto his resignation in 1870 under pressure of corrupt politicians.

222 Adam Badeau: (1831–95), author, soldier, diplomat; military secretary ofGeneral Grant until March 1869; became consul general at London andauthored several studies of Grant.

Rawlins: John Aaron Rawlins (1831–69), army chief of staff under Grant;briefly secretary of war from March to September 1869.

223 “The best way . . . execute it”: a paraphrase of this statement from Grant’sinaugural address in 1869: ‘I know no method to secure repeal of bad orobnoxious laws so effectual as their strict execution.’

226 fatal to two of his brothers: Adams’s unstable uncle George committedsuicide in 1829; his improvident uncle John died after a long illness in 1834.John Quincy Adams, their father, lived in Washington from 1817 to 1825 assecretary of state and from 1825 to 1829 as president; he retained his resid-ence in Washington while a congressman until his death in 1848.

227 inclination of the eliptic: an allusion to the 23.5 degree tilt of the axis of theearth to the plane of the earth’s orbit around the sun, a tilting which ac-counts for the changes in the seasons in the northern and southern hemi-spheres and the difference in climate.

attempt of Jay Gould to corner gold: reference to Gould’s manipulation ofthe stock of the Erie Railroad, of which he was president. He attempted topurchase the available gold coin and bullion on the American market to

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command a monopoly price from persons whose contacts required pay-ment in gold. The ‘corner’ was broken when the government released $4million in government-owned gold and sold it on the market.

228 âme damnée: a soul damned to Hell.Jim Fisk: (1834–72), financier and associate of Jay Gould who, although‘betrayed’ by Gould in the conspiracy, suffered no loss in the bankruptcy ofthe Erie Railroad stock.

229 hitched his wagon . . . to the star of reform: allusion to Emerson, who wrote inhis essay ‘Civilization’, Society and Solitude (1870), ‘hitch your wagon toa star’.

230 drive them from public life: as in the case of John Adams, who was defeatedfor re-election by Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, and John Quincy Adams,who was defeated for re-election by Andrew Jackson of Tennessee.

231 Grant’s policy: Seward, in the preceding term, had begun negotiations forthe purchase of the Danish West Indies (now the US Virgin Islands); it wasfinally acquired by the USA in 1917 for $25 million. The Bay of Samana islocated on the island of Santo Domingo.

232 Bancroft Davis: John Chandler Bancroft Davis (1822–1907), diplomat andlegal authority, assistant secretary of state at this period.

Talleyrand: Charles Maurice de Talleyrand (1754–1838), French states-man who served as minister of foreign affairs under Napoleon, then helpedrestore the Bourbon dynasty; renowned for his skill in diplomacy.

Cardinal de Retz: (1614–79) whose vivid memoirs, depicting the court andcourtiers of Louis XIV, was one of Adams’s favourite books. The allusionis to de Retz’s forming a judgment about a newly elected pope from the factthat the pope-elect had used the same pen for two years; Adams used thisincident before, in his History (i, ch. 7).

233 Spaulding: Elbridge Gerry Spaulding (1809–97), banker and congress-man. After the New York banks stopped payment in gold in 1862 he intro-duced a bill for the issuance of irredeemable treasury notes, the so-called‘greenbacks’, which would be legal tender for the payment of debts. It wasadopted as a desperate war measure in 1862.

235 Colonel Mulberry Sellers: the self-deluded character in the dramatization ofthe satirical novel The Gilded Age: A Tale of To-Day (1873) by Mark Twainand C. D. Warner.

236 a review . . . North American: ‘The Session’, North American Review (July1870), 29–62. The article was reprinted in the Chicago Times and otherAmerican papers.

237 David Wells: (1828–98), noted economist, US commissioner of revenue,1866–70.

Sunset Cox: Samuel Sullivan Cox (1824–89), popular Democratic con-gressman from New York, who earned his name when, as an editor inColumbus, Ohio, he had written a florid description of a sunset.

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237 Maurice de Guérin: (1810–39), French Romantic poet and writer of poeticprose whose work Centaur appeared in 1845. He was noted for his intensefeeling for nature. Arnold wrote an essay on his work in which the phrase‘vast bosom of Earth’ appears. Adams seems to provide a freer reading ofthe phrase than Arnold.

239 the rebellion: the American Civil War.Prince of Wales: the second child of Queen Victoria; later became EdwardVII, known for his sybaritic taste and behaviour. His father, Prince Albert,died in 1861; the young prince married Princess Alexandra of Denmark in1863.

240 Marlborough House: the London residence of the Prince of Wales. Horse-racing and gambling were his passions. Although he did not become kinguntil 1901 at the age of 60, the prince was much before the public and apopular speaker.

the Royal Exchange: the London stock exchange, located near the Bank ofEngland.

241 the power of Erie: the Erie Railroad management in New York.He and his brother . . . running greater risks every day: allusion to the out-spoken and critical articles in the North American Review by CharlesFrancis Adams, jun., ‘Chapters of Erie’, and Henry Adams’s ‘Sessions’ and‘The Legal Tender Act’.

Bagni di Lucca: a famous health spa some 60 miles northeast of Pisa, in themountains area of northwestern Tuscany in Italy.

his sister: Louisa Catherine (Adams) Kuhn. See note to p. 75, above.243 Ouchy: the port of Lausanne on Lake Geneva in Switzerland.

affiches: posters, often the fastest way to convey news or political views.244 Meyerbeer: Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791–1864), German composer noted

for his elaborately staged operas.

Thiers and Gambetta: Louis Adolphe Thiers (1797–1877), French states-man and historian, leader of the Liberal opposition against Napoleon III’simperialistic policies. Leon Gambetta (1838–82), French lawyer andstatesman of Jewish origin, popular leader of the opposition who escapedfrom Paris during the German siege and organized two armies to continuethe war.

President Eliot: Charles William Eliot (1834–1926), became president ofHarvard in 1869, Henry Adams’s father having declined the honour a shorttime before.

246 Westminister Review . . . his article on the Gold Conspiracy: ‘The New YorkGold Conspiracy’, Westminister Review, 94 (ns 37) (Oct. 1870), 411–36.Unsigned; repr. and rev. in Chapters of Erie (1871); repr. and further rev. inHistorical Essays (1891).Professor Gurney: Ephraim Whitney Gurney (1829–86). It was at ProfessorGurney’s home that Adams met his future wife, Marian Hooper (1843–

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1885), the sister of Gurney’s wife. Gurney was then tutoring Marian inGreek. Adams and Marian became engaged on 27 February 1872 and weremarried on 27 June 1872.

247 Abram Hewitt: (1822–1903), philanthropic steelmaker and a noted states-man who supported political reform. Elected Democratic mayor of NewYork, although when he broke with the Democratic Tammany Hall, he wasdefeated in a bid for re-election in 1888.

248 Mr. Sherman’s legislation: John Sherman (1823–1900), US senator and au-thor of the famous Sherman Anti-trust Act of 1890.

Senator Pendleton: George Hunt Pendleton (1825–89), US senator who se-cured passage of his pioneering civil service reform bill in 1883 providingfor federal civil service exams.

the Garfields . . . Whitneys: Garfield: James Abram Garfield (1831–81),twentieth president of the United States, shot and fatally wounded July1881. Elected to the Ohio State Senate in 1859, he left to fight in the CivilWar until 1863 when he entered Congress, becoming leader of theRepublican party. Died in September 1881, two months after being shot.Arthur: Chester Alan Arthur (1830–86), succeeded to the presidency afterthe assassination of Garfield. New York state politician who was Garfield’schoice for vice-president. Remained president until 1885 but was not re-nominated for the election of 1884 by his party because of his independentnature. Frelinghuysen: Frederick Freylinghuysen (1817–85), secretary ofstate, 1881–5; friend of Adams’s who at one point offered to appoint Adamsto the diplomatic mission to Central America at Guatemala City; MrsAdams dissuaded Frelinghuysen from making the offer official. Blaine:James Gillespie Blaine (1830–93), a brilliant and controversial politicianwho three times sought the nomination for president; nominated by theRepublicans but defeated in 1884 by Grover Cleveland, who succeededChester Arthur in 1885. Bayard: Thomas Francis Bayard (1828–98),Democratic senator from Delaware, secretary of state, 1885–98, underCleveland, ambassador to England, 1893–97, and a leading opponent offree coinage of silver. Adams was friendly with him. Whitney: see note top. 199, above.

249 four dollars a day: Adams’s salary was $2,000 a year, from which $300 or$400 were deducted for rent of his rooms.

251 J. R. Dennett: (1838–74), critic and editorial writer for the Nation.Chauncey Wright: (1830–75), scientist-philosopher, evolutionary natural-ist, and lecturer on psychology, forerunner of William James.

Francis Wharton: (1820–89), educator and writer of legal treatises, thenprofessor of canon law at a seminary in Cambridge.

John Fiske: (1842–1901), American historian, lecturer on philosophy atHarvard, 1869–71, exponent of Darwinian evolution and scientific posit-ivism.

252 Torrey: Henry Warren Torrey (1814–93), who taught at Harvard from1844 to 1886.

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252 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: historical compilation by various monks carrieddown to the middle of the twelfth century; written in Old English.

Venerable Bede: (673–735 ce), noted scholar and ecclesiastical historian ofmedieval England who wrote chiefly in Latin. Considered the most learnedman of his time. His two greatest works were The Ecclesiastical History ofEngland and De Natura Rerum. He spent most of his career at Jarrow inNorthumberland.

Lamarck: Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829), French naturalist whosetheory of biological evolution prepared the way for Darwin.

Linnaeus: Carolus Linnaeus (1707–78), Swiss naturalist who devised fa-mous Linnaean system of botanical classification of genera and species.

253 Sir Henry Maine: (1822–88), English jurist and legal writer whose workswere used by Adams in his courses at Harvard.

Tylor: Edward Burnett Tylor (1832–1917), English anthropologist, authorof two-volume Primitive Culture (1871) which argued that primitive na-tions represented the early stages of mankind’s progress. Became first pro-fessor of anthropology at Oxford, 1896–1909.

McLennan: John Ferguson McLennan (1827–81), Scottish social historiannoted for his studies of the historical evolution of marriage.

The college expected . . . teaching: Adams taught at Harvard 1870–2, 1873–7.He was on leave for the academic year 1872–3, travelling in Europe with hiswife on their honeymoon. He taught courses in the history of Europe from987 ce, medieval history and medieval institutions, English constitutionaland legal history, American colonial and early national history, and variousgraduate seminars, including one on Anglo-Saxon law.

257 William James: (1842–1910), leading American psychologist and philo-sopher, author of Principles of Psychology (1890), Varieties of ReligiousExperience (1902), and Pragmatism (1907); brother of the novelist HenryJames.

258 obliged to scribble . . . the Popes: Adams contributed twenty-two reviews andreview articles to the North American Review.Edward the Confessor: (1004–66), king of England, so called because of hisascetic nature; built the Westminister Abbey Church in London, de-stroyed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. He had strong Normansympathies and appears in a detail of the famous Bayeux Tapestry. AfterEdward’s death, William of Normandy led the successful Norman con-quest of 1066.

Boniface VIII: (1228–1303), famous pope who proclaimed the temporal aswell as the spiritual sovereignty of the papacy.

259 Frank Emmons: (1841–1911), geologist who worked under the direction ofClarence King. One of Adams’s oldest friends from Quincy; invited Adamsout west in 1871 to join the geological survey.

J. D. Whitney: (1819–96), professor of geology at Harvard and author ofvarious important reports on geological and mineralogical surveys.

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260 wapiti: an American elk.264 Twenty Years After (1892): the shift from Chapter XX to XXI marks a

twenty-year gap in Adams’s narrative, eliminating his literary and socialsuccesses in Boston and Washington, his two important European jour-neys taken with his wife, her tragic suicide on 6 December 1885, and sub-sequent travels to Japan and the South Seas. For these events see HA I andBD. In addition to several reviews and articles he published in the NorthAmerican Review, Adams produced the following works during thistwenty-year period: The Life of Albert Gallatin (1879), Democracy: AnAmerican Novel (1880), a biography of John Randolph (1882), Esther: ANovel (1884), and a History of the United States During the Administrationsof Jefferson and Madison (9 vols., 1889–91). On why Adams eliminated theyears 1872–92 from his Education, see HA II; BD; William Merrill Decker,The Literary Vocation of Henry Adams (1990), ch. 2. Adams included a por-trait of his wife as Esther Dudley in his 1884 novel, Esther.

265 the Hunts: William Morris Hunt (1824–79), noted American painter ofportraits and landscapes, introduced the paintings of Millet and theBarbizon school to Boston. His younger brother Richard Morris Hunt(1828–95) became a popular architect for the new millionaires; he special-ized in elegant chateaux. The Biltmore at Asheville, North Carolina is anexample of his work.

McKim: Charles McKim (1847–1909), American architect, his mostsignificant work the Boston Public Library; also designed important build-ing for the Chicago World’s Fair of 1893, which Adams visited.

Stanford White: (1853–1906), architect associated with McKim and notedfor his adaptation of Renaissance styles; designed the foundation and head-stone for St Gaudens’s statue, the Adams Memorial, in Rock CreekCemetery. White’s career suddenly ended when he was shot in New Yorkby Harry K. Thaw, jealous over an alleged romance between White andThaw’s wife.

Clarence King, John Hay, and Henry Adams: allusion to the ‘Five of Hearts’,formed by the three men and the wives of Hay and Adams.

life was complete in 1890: the mental illness and subsequent suicide of hiswife Marian ‘Clover’ Hooper on 6 December 1885 broke his life in halves,Adams later said, and led him to talk of his ‘posthumous’ existence foryears after. Adams’s father died in 1886 and his mother in 1889.

265 in hospital: Adams was in hospital for the removal of a wen (a benign seba-ceous tumour on the skin) on his shoulder ‘which I feared might make melook like a camel if I left it alone’ (Lett. iii. 576, 1 December 1891). Thegloom was deepened by his realization of the hopelessness of his attach-ment to Elizabeth Cameron, the wife of his friend, Senator James DonaldCameron. Their intimacy continued to the end of Adams’s life.

266 the South Seas: Adams left New York on 16 August 1890 and arrived inSamoa on 7 October; Tahiti on 4 February 1891; Fiji Islands, 15 June;Australia, 31 July; Ceylon 5 September; he landed in France on 9 October

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1891. One of his accomplishments from his stay in Tahiti was a privatelyprinted history of the people of the island based on the oral traditionswhich he collected and published as Memoirs of Marau Taaroa Last Queenof Tahiti (1893, rev. 1901). Adams’s letters from the South Seas are amongthe liveliest he wrote. La Farge’s Reminiscences of the South Seas (1901) pre-sents a charming picture of their travels and their life among the islanders.

267 George Bancroft: (1800–91), noted American historian and statesman, au-thor of the multi-volume History of the United States (1834–76), resigned asminister to Germany in 1874 and resided after in Washington as ‘dean’ ofAmerican historians. Bancroft was a relative of Mrs Adams and took aninterest in the historical work of Adams.

“Life” of Lincoln: John Hay and John G. Nicolay, Abraham Lincoln: AHistory (10 vols., New York, 1890).

268 palms of Vailima: Vailima was a 400-acre plantation on a mountain shelfnear Apia in Samoa where Adams visited Stevenson and his wife in a smallhouse in a jungle clearing just before they built a manor house.

269 Calvin Brice: (1845–98), rich railroad magnate and able senator from Ohio,1890–7.

Mr. Cleveland: Grover Cleveland (1837–1908), president of the USA1885–9, 1893–7, the first Democrat to be elected president since the CivilWar, formerly reform governor of New York, noted for his conservatismbut also his honesty.

Mr. Harrison: Benjamin Harrison (1833–1901), president of the USA1889–93. Ineffectual and an unlikely heir to his grandfather, WilliamHenry Harrison, president in 1841. Benjamin Harrison was aloof anddignified, which was popular with neither the people nor the politicians.One Republican leader always advised callers on the president to wearovercoats—so they would not catch cold.

270 party loyalty: Hay had served under President Lincoln, a Republican, as as-sistant private secretary, and he continued his Republican associations. Hisbusiness interests as an associate of his father-in-law, Amasa Stone, aCleveland railroad magnate, linked him to Ohio Republicans, especiallyafter the suicide of Stone in 1883 made Hay and his wife millionaires.

Carl Schurz: (1829–1906), German-born political reformer, brigadier gen-eral in the Civil War, senator from Missouri and secretary of the interiorunder President Rutherford B. Hayes, 1877–81.

Nicolay: John G. Nicolay (1832–1901), Illinois journalist who becameLincoln’s private secretary and later worked with Hay in publishingLincoln’s writings and the ten-volume Abraham Lincoln: A History.

271 “A la disposicion de Usted!”: ‘At your disposal!’272 Hayes: Rutherford B. Hayes (1822–93), nineteenth president of the USA,

1877–81, disliked by Adams and by others for his seriousness. The formergovernor of Ohio preferred to offer office on the basis of merit rather thanfavour, which did not please his party. William M. Evarts was his secretary

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of state, John Sherman his secretary of the treasury—both men familiar toAdams.

273 “History” of Jefferson and Madison: History of the United States During theAdministrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison (9 vols., New York,1889–91): A privately printed version of six copies of the first volume ap-peared in 1884. Adams began research on the project in the late 1870s and,although some 2,000 sets of the history were sold by Charles Scribner andSons, he was disappointed with the overall sales.

Credit was shaken: the collapse in 1891 of Baring Brothers bank in London,resulting from the firm’s risky investment in an Argentinian loan, led to aworldwide financial recession and led to the depression of 1893. Adams’sconservative investments, however, were not greatly affected by the shiftson the stock market.

274 Frank Parkman: Francis Parkman (1823–93), noted American historian,author of The California and Oregon Trail (1849) and a series of books onthe French presence in America. He and Adams were friends.

three serious readers: a characteristic piece of self-depreciation. His pub-lisher Charles Scribner felt that the nine volumes met with ‘exceptionalsuccess’ in the USA. Approximately 2,000 sets were originally publishedand sold, although this fell short of Adams’s expectations. The two otherserious readers of his draft volumes were George Bancroft and CharlesFrancis Adams, jun.

275 he was passing . . . underground: a humorous reference to King’s activities asa mining engineer and prospector.

276 the bronze figure: The seated figure, shrouded in a cowled robe and bearingno inscription, was placed over the grave of Marian Adams as a memorialto his wife. Some tourist books refer to it as ‘Grief ’; Adams himself oncewrote that ‘his own name for it is “the Peace of God” ’. Adams would beburied there in 1918. The monument cost approximately $25,000, a figurethat scandalized many.

Kamakura Daibuts: great bronze image of Buddha called the Dai Butsu atKamakuru in Japan.

277 Deeside: he spent the summer with his late wife’s five young nieces at alodge at Aboyne, Aberdeenshire. A few years earlier, their mother, EllenHooper Gurney, wife of Professor Ephraim Gurney and sister of MarianAdams, had also committed suicide.

278 society favorites . . . Edward Wolcott: Tom Reed: Thomas Brackett Reed(1839–1902), speaker of the House of Representatives and most powerfulpolitical figure in Washington; displayed autocratic domination of theHouse through parliamentary rules which he devised. Bourke Cockran:(1854–1923), Tammany Hall politician of Irish origin and US congress-man known as a mesmerizing orator. Edward Wolcott: (1848–1905), USsenator from Colorado, opponent of the single gold standard.

Senator Cameron: Senator James Donald Cameron (1833–1918),Pennsylvania-born capitalist and politician, president of the North Central

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Railroad, 1863–74. Secretary of war under President Grant, 1876.Republican senator from Pennsylvania from 1877 to 1897.

279 Mrs. Cameron: Elizabeth Sherman Cameron (1857–1944), second wife ofSenator Cameron. Supposedly the most beautiful young woman inWashington, Elizabeth Cameron was 21 when she married in 1878; shelater became Henry Adams’s most intimate friend after his wife’s death anda frequent social companion in Paris until World War I ended his annualtrips abroad. His letters to her are personal and deeply moving.

Mrs. Lodge: Anna Cabot Mills Lodge (1850–1915), socialite wife ofSenator Henry Cabot Lodge also favoured by Adams.

Cabot Lodge: Henry Cabot Lodge (1850–1924), from a prominent Bostonfamily; US senator and later chairman of the Senate Foreign RelationsCommittee; editor of the North American Review, 1876–79; a conservativeand nationalist Republican who later became an enemy of WoodrowWilson and the League of Nations. Lodge had been a graduate student ofAdams’s at Harvard and his assistant editor at the North American Review.They remained close friends until Adams’s death.

Theodore Roosevelt: (1858–1919), governor of New York, US civil servicecommissioner, 1889–95, president of the USA, 1901–8, aggressive reformstatesman: Adams disapproved of his impulsiveness and egotism but re-mained on good terms with him by maintaining a diplomatic silence. Hesupposedly received copy No. 1 of the privately printed 1907 version of theEducation.Cecil Spring Rice: Sir Cecil Arthur Spring Rice (1859–1918), popular andwitty British diplomat who in 1887 became acquainted with Adams andgrew to be one of his favourites, carrying on an extensive political corres-pondence; appointed ambassador to the USA in 1913; recalled in 1918.

Havana: swept up in Clarence King’s enthusiasm for Cuba, Adams becamean active supporter of Cuban independence movements and on his returnto Washington from Cuba, worked to free Cuba from Spain.

280 Albert Gallatin: (1761–1849), Pennsylvania statesman, secretary of thetreasury under Jefferson, 1801–9, and under Madison, 1809–13; greatlyadmired by Adams. His biography, written by Adams, appeared in 1879,accompanied by a two-volume compilation of his papers.

281 the question of silver: the hotly debated question of whether or not interna-tional trade should be carried on with settlement of balances only in gold oralternatively in gold and silver, at a fixed ratio of silver to gold. The finan-cial depression of 1893 made the question acute. Adams was ambivalent onthe issue. For a discussion of this topic see HA III, ch. 4.Dana Horton: Samuel Dana Horton (1844–95), American economist andearly advocate of bimetallism, a form of international settlement based ona fixed ratio between gold and silver.

282 Dr. Johnson: the allusion is to a famous anecdote about Johnson, who whenchallenged to refute the theory of Bishop George Berkeley that particular

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objects exist only in the perceiving mind kicked a stone in the road to‘prove’ that it was real.

283 the community . . . a beggar: reference to the disastrous panic and depressionof 1893. The investments of the Adamses were not in serious danger.

284 his brother Brooks . . . the same perplexities: Brooks Adams was working onthe manuscript of his Law of Civilization and Decay (1895), which also at-tacked the capitalists as usurers and attempted to construct a history of themoral decay of society as a result of the rise of a usurious society, much theway Ezra Pound would do in the 1930s through his use of Social Credit.

286 Burnham: Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846–1912), prominent Chicagoarchitect whose firm designed the first skyscraper. He was the directingarchitect for the 1893 Chicago Exposition and author of the Burnham planfor the city of Chicago.

Paestum: ancient Greek city in southern Italy displaying some of the mostimposing ruins in the Hellenic world.

Girgenti: ancient Greek city near the south coast of Sicily with ruins con-sidered to be among the most beautiful of the ancient world.

287 what amount of force . . . erg: watt: standard unit of electrical energy. ampère.standard unit of electrical current. erg: standard unit of work done in amechanical system.

288 Senator Jones: John Percival Jones (1829–1912), English-born mine owner,elected senator from Nevada and champion of bimetallism.

Moreton Frewen: (1853–1924), English friend of Adams and well-knownadvocate of bimetallism. The vote for repeal occurred on 30 October 1893.

bystander’s spirit: Adams took more than a bystander’s role in the silverfight. Evidence suggests that he helped to write a speech for SenatorCameron against the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.

289 1800 and 1828: the elections respectively of Thomas Jefferson and AndrewJackson, two spokesmen for a democracy of independent farmers andurban dwellers.

290 among the earliest wreckage had been the fortunes of Clarence King: King’sventures in speculative mining made him vulnerable to stock-marketcollapse. The crash of 1893 created great mental stress for him, leading tohis temporary hospitalization. Ironically, Alexander Agassiz had made afortune from his connection with the Calument and Hecla mines in theMichigan peninsula, which included Henry Adams among its investors.

the gulf of bankruptcy: Adams’s investments, never at serious risk, providedhim with an annual income of from $25,000 to $50,000 in a period of littletaxation. The Education was originally addressed to an élite that was con-siderably more wealthy than Adams.

291 examples of success . . . William C. Whitney: the prominent financier was oneof President Cleveland’s closest advisers; his Washington home and FifthAvenue mansion were centres of international society. One of his sons

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married the daughter of Adams’s closest friend, John Hay. See note to p.199, above.

292 the Cuban rebellion: Adams’s home in Lafayette Square became a meeting-place of representatives of the Cuban revolutionists. The historical reportin support of recognition of the Cuban republic, which Adams wrote forSenator Cameron, was submitted to the Senate on 21 December 1896, butno action was taken on it. Adams first went to Cuba in March 1888 withTheodore Dwight.

293 Hallett Phillips: William Hallet Phillips (1853–97), prominent Washingtonlawyer who collaborated with Adams in the Cuban revolutionary intrigueand travelled with him to Cuba in February 1893.

Iddings: Joseph Paxton Iddings (1857–1920), an associate of Clarence Kingin the US Geological Survey and involved in the geological survey ofYellowstone Park, 1883–93; became professor of petrology at the Univer-sity of Chicago in 1895.

294 Worthington Ford: (1858–1941), friend and economic consultant of HenryAdams, director of the Bureau of Statistics in the State Department; after1893 he became chief statistician in the Treasury Department; in 1897,chief of the manuscript division of the Boston Public Library, returning toWashington as chief of manuscripts for the Library of Congress. Between1909 and 1929, he was editor of the Massachusetts Historical Society andhelped to prepare the Education for publication in 1918; his two-volumeedition of the letters of Henry Adams appeared in 1930 and 1938.

Elisée Reclus: (1830–1905), leading French geographer, author of a monu-mental universal geography in nineteen volumes; leader with PrinceKropotkin of the anarchist movement.

295 massacres . . . Armenia: Massacres of Christian Armenians by the Turksbegan in 1894. In a single massacre of 1896 an estimated 6,000–7,000Georgian Armenians were killed. The total number of victims ranged from20,000 to 50,000.

Cuba: The Cuban war with Spain resumed in 1895 until American inter-vention in 1898 ended Spanish rule.

South Africa: the Boer War, which saw the Transvaal Republic and theOrange Free State seek to throw off British rule, began in October 1899.

Manchuria: failure of the Chinese Boxer Rebellion in 1900 allowed Russiato establish a protectorate over Manchuria until her defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–5.

296 Mme. de Sévigné: (1626–96), notable intellectual of the French court, fa-mous for her brilliant letters on the court and culture addressed to herdaughter and written between 1669 and 1694. Published in 1725, the bookwas one of Adams’s favourites. He visited her country estate, Les Rochers,near Vitré, in August 1895.

Abigail Adams: see note to p. 20 above.

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Mont-Saint-Michel: array of fortified abbey buildings surmounted by aRomanesque-Gothic church on a rocky islet of western France connectedby a causeway to the mainland. The party went on to visit the cathedral atChartres, the most famous Gothic cathedral in France where, as Adamswrote, ‘after thirty-five years of postponed intentions, I worshipped at lastbefore the splendor of the great glass Gods’—the famous stained glass win-dows which he would describe in his 1904 work, Mont-Saint-Michel andChartres (Lett. iv. 312). He made the trip to Normandy in August 1895.

297 pulque: an alcoholic liquor fermented from a Mexican plant.Churriguerresque: in the extravagant style of the Spanish architect JoseChurriguera (1650–1725), royal architect to Charles II.

to elect McKinley . . . start the world anew: the election of McKinley overWilliam Jennings Bryan in 1896 marked the power of big business inAmerican politics. After the panic of 1893 came an era of prosperity athome and expansion abroad through ‘dollar diplomacy’. John Hay, a liberalcontributor to the Republican party, was rewarded with the ambassador-ship to Great Britain.

298 Rockhill: William Woodville Rockhill (1854–1914), diplomat and amateurgeologist, author of Diary of a Journey through Mongolia and Tibet (1894),assistant secretary of state, 1894–7. He was a member of Adams’s Washing-ton circle. In 1897 Rockhill was appointed minister to Greece, Romania,and Serbia, headquartered in Athens.

299 embêtement: stupid annoyance.300 “Even a fool, . . . when he holdeth his peace, is counted wise”: King Solomon,

Prov. 17:28.

“A voir . . . faiblesse”: Alfred de Vigny, ‘La mort du loup’, Les Destinées(1843).

“temporary torturing flame”: Byron, Prophecy of Dante (1819), iii. 186–7,190.

“Silent . . . the best are silent now!”: from Arnold’s poem ‘Stanzas from theGrand Chartreuse’ (1855), ll. 113–14. Arnold visited the monastery, highin the French Alps near Grenoble, in 1851.

301 Tannhäuser: legendary hero-knight of Wagner’s opera Tannhäuser. Havingsinned in the cave of Venus, Tannhäuser wanders as a pilgrim to Rome toseek absolution. It is denied to him and he wanders back to the castle of theLandgrave of Thuringia, the Wartburg, in Germany. There, the saintlyElisabeth, who loves him, makes her dying prayer for him and his pilgrim’sstaff bursts into bloom to symbolize his being saved.

302 the Nile: Adams had been down the Nile on a wedding journey with his wifein 1873.

Spencer Eddy . . . sinking of the Maine: Spencer Eddy (1874–1939) was pri-vate secretary to Ambassador Hay and subsequently a member of the StateDepartment and diplomat. Eddy told the party of the sinking of the battle-

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ship Maine on 15 February 1898 in Havana harbour with the loss of over260 lives.

303 summer of the Spanish War: the Spanish American War, 20 April 1898 to 1October 1898, in which the USA defeated Spanish fleets at Santiago, Cuba,and Manila Bay in the Philippines, gaining an overseas empire.

Germany as the grizzly terror: reference to the anti-British feeling inGermany with the onset of the Boer War in South Africa, German sympa-thies being with the Boers. At the same time, Germany adopted a expansivenaval program in 1897 to threaten British naval supremacy.

305 Cardinal Wolsey: Thomas Wolsey (1475–1530), leading privy councillor ofHenry VIII and, as archbishop of Canterbury, the autocrat of the church.He was instrumental but unsuccessful in asking the Pope to grant HenryVIII a divorce from Catherine of Aragon. His repentance for political mis-takes did not save him from charges of treason, although he died before thetrial.

306 he took office at cost of life: Hay’s last years were weakened by chronic anddebilitating prostate cancer; he died in 1905.

307 St. Francis: Francis of Assisi (1182–1226), noted Italian monk, an asceticand mystic who founded the order of Franciscans, dedicated to humilityand poverty. Adams refers to him as ‘the nearest approach the westernworld ever made to an oriental incarnation of the divine essence’ in ch. I ofMont-Saint-Michel and Chartres. Adams was attracted to his mystical pan-theism, as seen in ch. XV of Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres. Adams wasironically sceptical towards pure rationality.

308 HIC JACET . . . PRIMO EXPLICUIT SOCNAM: ‘Here lies | the Lilliputian writer| The barbarian scholar | Henry Adams | Son of Adam and Eve | Whofirst explained | [the law of] Soc.’ Sac and Soc were certain rights of legaljurisdiction belonging to the lord of the manor in feudal England. The doc-toral essays of three of Adams’s graduate students and Adams’s own essay,‘Anglo-Saxon Courts of Law’, were published by Adams in Essays in Anglo-Saxon Law (1876).Rudolph Sohm: (1841–1917), German legal scholar whose treatise Pro-cedure de la Lex Salica was favourably reviewed by Adams in the NorthAmerican Review, April 1874.

309 photographs: Adams assembled a large collection of photographs ofchurches and details of church architecture.

the chance arrival of John La Farge: the artist was appointed a tutor atHarvard in 1871. He did not commence his important murals and stainedglass for Trinity Church in Boston until 1876. See also note to p. 58 above.

cha-no-yu: hot tea-water.

310 Humphreys Johnston: (1857–1941), studied art with La Farge and becamenoted for his symbolic paintings and the valuable art collection in his homein Venice.

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the Boer War was raging: the war began in October 1899, with peace arriv-ing on 31 May 1902. At the conclusion of the war, the two defeated re-publics were annexed to the Cape Colony as part of the British empire.

311 Mr. Chamberlain: Joseph Chamberlain (1836–1914), colonial secretary ofEngland, who advocated imperial consolidation. Adams had admired himas a progressive politician and was on friendly terms with him.

312 With Hay’s politics . . . Adams had nothing whatever to do: characteristicallymodest, since the two friends constantly discussed foreign policy, in whichHay regarded Adams as an authority. See HA III, 408–10.Samuel J. Tilden: (1814–86), lawyer, Democratic party politician, re-former, and 1876 candidate against Rutherford B. Hayes for the presid-ency. Tilden actually had the popular majority in the tight race but aspecially formed electoral commission favoured Hayes.

313 Pauncefote: Sir Julian (later Baron) Pauncefote (1828–1902), British am-bassador to the USA, 1893–1902, who worked out with Hay the Hay–Pauncefote Treaty (1901) which provided for equal access by all nations tothe proposed Panama Canal, while granting the United States the right tofortify and protect (effectively to control) the area.

a dozen or more volumes: refers to his nine-volume History of the UnitedStates and biographies of Gallatin and John Randolph.Clan-na-Gael: revolutionary organization of American Irish which aimedto overthrow the British rule in Ireland.

Count Cassini: (1835–?), Russian ambassador at Washington, 1897–1904;had previously been stationed in Peking and after leaving Washington wassent to Madrid. In 1913, he was reported to be living in Paris, presumablyin self-exile, which might explain why his name was omitted from theSoviet Encyclopedia.Von Holleben: (1835–1906), German ambassador to Washington.

314 s = : a gravitational formula of falling bodies, s being the distance travelled by a falling object, g, the acceleration of of gravity at the surface ofthe earth (32 feet per second), t the elapsed time of the fall in seconds.Kepler: Johann Kepler (1571–1630), German astronomer who discoveredthe laws of planetary motion which provided the basis of Newton’s work.

Newton: Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727), discoverer of the universal law ofgravitation. He symbolized for Adams the intellectual potential ofmankind, hence his repeated statement that the problems of the worldrequired the appearance of a new Newton.

315 Simon Newcomb: (1835–1909), professor of mathematics and astronomy atJohns Hopkins University.

Willard Gibbs: Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839–1903), professor of mathemat-ical physics at Yale and a pioneer theoretician of physical chemistry. Gibbsset out the ‘Rule of Phase’ in his important work, On the Equilibrium ofHeterogenous Substances (1876–8). In 1909, Adams tried to apply this con-

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cept to history. Oliver Wolcott Gibbs (1822–1908) was a distinguishedchemist and colleague of Adams at Harvard in the 1870s. Adams acknow-ledges his confusion of these two scientists in his correction of Willard forWolcott outlined in detail by Ernest Samuels in his edition of the Education(Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973), appendix B, table 2, p. 528.

315 Langley: Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834–1906), American astronomerand inventor of the aeroplane, the first successful unmanned flight occur-ring in 1896.

“Concepts of Modern Science,” . . . Judge Stallo: John Bernhard Stallo(1823–1900), emigrated from Germany to study chemistry and physicsand became a professor at St John’s College, Fordham, New York; he thenstudied law and was appointed a judge in Cincinnati; US minister to Italyin 1885. Published The Concepts and Theories of Modern Physics in 1882, es-sentially an essay in epistemology.

316 Rasselas: disenchanted hero of the philosophical romance Rasselas (1759)by Samuel Johnson. A young prince eager to experience the world,Rasselas escapes the Happy Valley with his sister and mentor Imlac, travel-ling to Cairo where he learns that romance can quickly lead to dis-illusionment. Further travels confirm that only in Happy Valley are theirexpectations met. A critique of eighteenth-century optimism, Rasselas re-mains a corrective to those who overvalue the ideal.

Trocadero: Palais du Trocadero, an immense building near the Eiffel towerconstructed for the exhibition of 1878. It became a fashionable residentialdistrict.

317 Great Exposition of 1900: the Exposition of 1900 opened on 15 April inParis and ran for seven months. It was the largest then held in Europe andwas marked by the construction of several important buildings, notably theGrand Palais and the Petit Palais. Its influence was instrumental on Adamsbecause of its display of dynamos in the ‘machine gallery’ of the Champs deMars, where Adams sat ‘by the hour over the great dynamos, watchingthem run as noiselessly and as smoothly as the planets, and asking them—with infinite courtesy—where in Hell they are going. They are marvel-lous.’ (Lett. v. 169; also see Lett. v. 152).

Lord Bacon: Francis Bacon (1561–1626), lord chancellor of England, es-sayist, and philosopher; author of The Advancement of Learning (1605) andNovum Organum (1620). His political posts included solicitor general, at-torney general, privy counsellor, and lord keeper. Complaints of bribery,however, led to his arrest, imprisonment, and banishment from parliamentand the court. Later pardoned, he died in debt.

“Comedy of Errors”: Shakespeare’s comedy of 1594 dealing with two sets ofidentical twins, one set named Antipholus, who separate (one going toEphesus, the other to Syracuse), and the other set named Dromio, twinslaves. Confusions are unravelled only at the conclusion, in whichEphesians and Syracusans are united.

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Daimler: Gottlieb Daimler (1834–1900), German engineer, invented one ofthe first high-speed combustion engines, patented 1887; pioneer developerof the automobile.

318 great hall of dynamos: Adams had first become interested in the dynamo atthe Chicago Exposition of 1893, writing to John Hay that he ‘laboredsolemnly through all the great buildings and looked like an owl at the dy-namos and steam-engines’ (Lett. iv. 134). Earlier models of the dynamo hadalready been used for limited lighting and power since the 1850s. In Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres, Adams cited the dynamo in ch. XVI when dis-cussing Thomas Aquinas’s concept of God as ‘a Prime Motor whichsupplies all energy to the universe’ (LA 686). Adams is here describing thehall of dynamos or ‘machine gallery’ at the Champs de Mars. See note to p.317, above.

his own rays: Langley, with the aid of the bolometer which he had invented,was able to measure the intensities of invisible heat-rays in the infra-redspectrum.

319 Kelvin: Baron Kelvin (1824–1907), British mathematician and physicistnoted for discoveries in thermodynamics and electrodynamics. Professorof natural philosophy at Glasgow (1846–99).

Marconi: Guglielmo Marconi (1874–1937), physicist and inventor of radiotelegraphy at Bologne in 1895 through the conversion of electromagneticwaves into electricity; in 1898 he transmitted signals across the EnglishChannel and in 1901 across the Atlantic. Shared the Nobel Prize forPhysics in 1909.

Branly: Edouard Branly (1846–1940), French physicist; inventor in 1890of the Branly ‘coherer’ for detecting radio waves.

X-rays: also called Roentgen rays after their discovery in 1895 by WilhelmRoentgen (1845–1923), the rays being produced by a high-voltage dis-charge in a vacuum tube.

320 Copernicus: (1473–1543), Polish astronomer, founded modern astronomyby proving the daily rotation of the earth and its rotation around the sun.

Galileo: (1564–1642), Italian astronomer and physicist who discovered theprinciple of falling bodies, developed the refracting telescope, and sup-ported the theories of Copernicus for which he was condemned by theInquisition for heresy.

Constantine: Constantine the Great (280?–337 ce), Roman emperor whowas persuaded to adopt Christianity in 313; invoked the Council of Nicaeain 325 which issued the Nicene Creed.

Venus . . . by way of a scandal: reference to venereal disease indirectly de-rived from Venus, the goddess of love. The cult of the Virgin Mary waslargely rejected in the Protestant New England of Adams’s boyhood.

Sir Lancelot: allusion to the legendary hero of Chrétien de Troyes’sLancelot (twelfth century) crossing a sword bridge to enter a castle and

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rescue Guinivere. Adams discusses this and other romances of Chrétien deTroyes in Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres.

320 Lourdes: celebrated shrine in southwestern France, dedicated to the VirginMary; said to be the site of a miraculous visitation of the Virgin to a peasantgirl in 1858.

321 Diana of the Ephesians: virgin goddess mother, worshipped in antiquity ather shrine at Ephesus on the west coast of Asia Minor under the Greekname of Artemis.

“Quae quoniam . . . sola gubernas”: Lucretius (c. 99–55 bce), from On theNature of Things, i. 21: ‘Since you alone govern the nature of things.’“Donna, . . . volar senz’ ali”: ‘Lady [Virgin Mary], thou art so great andhast such worth, that if there be who would have grace yet betaketh nothimself to thee, his longing seeketh to fly without wings’, Dante, Paradiso,xxxiii, trans. Carlyle-Wicksteed. ‘Virgin of the Schools’ refers to medievalscholastic philosophers.

at the Louvre and at Chartres: allusion to the notable paintings of the Virginat the Louvre in Paris, including Leonardo’s Virgin of the Rocks, and to thestained-glass windows and sculptures honouring the Virgin at theCathedral of Our Lady at Chartres. See chs. V–X of Adams’s Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres.

322 Herbert Spencer: (1820–1903), British evolutionary philosopher renownedfor his application of evolutionary principles to sociology. His main workwas the nine-volume System of Synthetic Philosophy (1862–93) whichunited biology, psychology, sociology, and ethics. He was the leadingadvocate of ‘Social Darwinism’.

Walt Whitman: (1819–92), distinguished American journalist, essayist,and poet whose frank sexual imagery in Leaves of Grass (1855) added a newvitality to poetic language, although the book was not well received when itfirst appeared. His Democratic Vistas (1871) criticized the decline of moralconsciousness in the country and pointed to a new artistic class to orient thenation.

American art . . . sexless: most distinctions of masculine and femininegender had been lost to English and American speech, hence the commenton language. American schooling had become largely co-educational by1905, with the same curriculum for males and females.

St. Gaudens’s General Sherman: St Gaudens’s equestrian statute ofSherman was afterwards removed to its permanent site in Central Park,New York City, in 1903; a companion statue of Sherman by St Gaudenswas unveiled that same year in Washington.

323 folle: excessive.“I darted . . . monuments of superstition”: Samuels, in a lengthy note, sug-gests that Adams is likely conflating a passage from Gibbon’s Frenchjournal with his memory of a passage from the autobiography itself. Thejournal, dated 21 February 1763, reads differently from Gibbon’s Memoirs

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(1796); Adams imagines Gibbon before Amiens cathedral. See ErnestSamuels’ edition of the Education (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973),653 n. 34.

Isis: Egyptian goddess who absorbed the attributes of all the ancient femaledeities as earth and mother goddess, commonly represented with cows’horns. Edfu, south of Luxor, is the site of the best-preserved temple inEgypt and was first visited by Adams in 1873 and again in 1898.

324 Louis XI: (1423–83), a pious but machiavellian king of France who oftendressed like a pilgrim and favoured an old worn hat decorated with a figureof a saint.

Benvenuto Cellini: (1500–71), Italian sculptor and goldsmith who workedunder Michaelangelo and was a protégé of the Medicis. His vivid auto-biography was much admired.

Cnidos: ancient city in Asia Minor, site of the most famous statue ofAphrodite by the elder Praxiteles. The original has been lost but copiesexist, the finest in the Vatican.

Grand Chartreuse: Arnold’s ‘Stanzas from the Grand Chartreuse’ recallshis 1851 visit to the monastery of the Carthusian monks. Significantportions of their prayers invoke the Virgin. The text was one of Adams’sfavourite poems. See note to p. 300, above.

325 Zeno: Zeno of Citium (335–263 bce), probably the Greek philosopher,founder of the Stoic school.

Thomas Aquinas: (1225–74), Italian scholastic philosopher and the mostimportant Catholic theologian of the Middle Ages, author of the SummaTheologiae and founder of Thomism. Subject of the final chapter of Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres. Entered the Dominican order of mendicantfriars against the wishes of his family; captured by his brothers and im-prisoned for a year; made his way to Cologne to become a pupil of AlbertusMagnus and the went to Paris, where he taught until summoned by thepope to teach at a series of Italian centres. Canonized in 1323. He attemptedto reconcile Aristotle’s scientific rationalism with Christian doctrines offaith and revelation.

Montaigne: Michel de Montaigne (1533–92), French essayist, courtier, andsceptical philosopher who spoke only Latin until the age of 6. Studied law,became a city councillor and then mayor of Bordeaux. Inherited the familyestate and lived the life of a gentleman varied by visits to leading cities ofEurope. His Essais (1572–80, 1588) express his efforts to understand newideas and personalities of his time. Quoted by Shakespeare, imitated byBacon.

Pascal: Blaise Pascal (1623–62), French mathematical scientist and philo-sopher whose Pensées explored differences between science and religion.He invented a calculating machine in 1647 and later the barometer and thesyringe. Discussed frequently and sympathetically by Adams in Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres.

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326 thousands of pages: rhetorical emphasis by Adams, whose chief calculationsrelated to foreign trade, international balance of payments, and inter-national production of coal and iron from statistics supplied from hisfriend Worthington Ford of the US Bureau of Statistics.

327 Rodin: Auguste Rodin (1840–1917), the celebrated French sculptor whoseworks were considered daringly suggestive in their nudity. His sculptureLe Penseur (The Thinker), in front of the Panthéon in Paris, was completedin 1904. Adams visited his studio a number of times.

Besnard: Paul Albert Besnard (1849–1934), French impressionist painter,was noted at the time for his unconventional technique.

Mme. de Pompadour: (1721–64), brilliant and witty chief mistress of LouisXV who also gained political influence and financial power. Installed atVersailles, she assumed control over public affairs; founded the royalporcelain factory as Sèvres and was patroness of architecture, the arts, andliterature.

Mme. du Barry: (1746–93), a beautiful adventuress who married ComteGuillaume du Barry before becoming the official royal mistress of LouisXV in 1769; guillotined during the French Revolution.

Maria Theresa: (1717–80), archduchess of Austria and queen of Hungaryand Bohemia. Reference is to a set of mementoes of Napoleon, his son, andhis nephew as well as of Frederick the Great of Prussia and of MariaTheresa. Frequenting the auctions of art dealers was a popular activity ofFrench society.

The drama acted at Peking: an allusion to the Boxer Rebellion in Chinawhen anti-European feeling reached a crisis, leaving many Europeans be-sieged in Peking legations after the murder of the German ambassador on20 June 1900. Only at the end of the summer did an international force re-solve the situation.

328 his purpose: Adams’s private correspondence indicates serious reservationsconcerning the actual effectiveness of Hay’s diplomacy.

329 Root: Elihu Root (1845–1937), American lawyer and statesman, secretaryof war in the cabinets of McKinley and Roosevelt. He reorganized thearmy and created the general staff.

culbute: a somersault, downfall, or catastrophe.330 Aaron Burr: (1756–1836), American politician, vice-president under

Thomas Jefferson; killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel; involved in amysterious conspiracy to seize control of the Spanish southwest for whichhe was tried for treason and acquitted, an episode recounted in Adams’sHistory of the United States.William B. Giles: (1762–1830), US senator, later governor of Virginia and apolitical enemy of John Quincy Adams.

Sir Forcible Feebles: in Shakespeare’s 2 Henry IV, iii. ii, Falstaff character-izes one of the recruits as ‘most forcible feeble’.

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331 Non dolet, Paete!: ‘Paete, it does not hurt!’—the words of Arria, the wife ofA. Caecina Paetus, condemned to die by the emperor Claudius. Arria stabsherself to set the example for her husband.

Faraday’s experiments: Michael Faraday (1791–1867), English physicistand chemist who discovered electromagnetic induction in 1831 and provedthe polarity of an electrical charge, discoveries which led to the invention ofthe dynamo.

332 Mme. Curie: (1867–1934), Polish-born French physicist and chemist whodiscovered radium in 1898 in collaboration with her husband Pierre.

333 Mask of Comus: Comus, a Masque, presented at Ludlow Castle, 1634 byJohn Milton (1608–74), a pastoral play with music by Henry Lawes.

Walcott: Charles Doolittle Walcott (1850–1927), geologist and palaeontol-ogist, director of the US Geological Survey and a friend of Adams’s. At thispoint Adams is furthering his doubts concerning the theory of evolutionand Lyell’s uniformitarianism.

334 Croll: James Croll (1821–90), Scottish geologist and climatologist whoseviews of glaciation caused by eccentricity of the earth’s orbit Adams at-tacked in 1867.

Geikie: James Geikie (1839–1915), Scottish geologist, author of The GreatIce Age (1874) and Prehistoric Europe (1881).

335 Suess: Eduard Suess (1831–1914), Austrian geologist and palaeontologist,author of Antlitz der Erde (The Face of the Earth, 3 vols., 1885–1901).Cossack ukase: Cossacks, privileged landowners in Czarist Russia. A ukaseis (in Russian) an authoritarian edict or proclamation having the force oflaw.

Lord Kelvin: William Thomson, Baron Kelvin, whose mid-nineteenth-century paper on the age of the earth denied the claim of Lyell and theUniformitarians that the earth was several thousand million years old. In1848, Kelvin proposed his absolute scale of temperature independent ofthe properties of any particular substance and in 1851 rationalized the dy-namical theory of heat with the principle of the conservation of energy.

Ignoramus . . . Ignorabimus: ‘we do not know’, ‘we shall never know’, the de-claration of Du Bois-Reymond, renowned German physiologist of Frenchdescent, in his famous Berlin lecture of 1884 on the limits of science.

336 Limulus and Lepidosteus: Limulus, a horseshoe or king crab of the Americancoast, thought to be a living survivor of a genus found in one of the oldestgeological strata; Lepidosteus, large pike-like genus surviving from Eoceneand Miocene geological periods.

337 Teufelsdröckh: the hero-philosopher of Carlyle’s Sartor Resartus (1833–4),who had also stood at the North Cape in the course of his wanderings andencountered a Russian smuggler.

Joe Stickney: Joseph Trumbull Stickney (1874–1904), New Englandpoet who studied in Paris and became one of the ‘Harvard exiles’ in Paris;

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companion of George ‘Bay’ Cabot Lodge (1873–1909), also a Harvardpoet, son of Henry Cabot Lodge. In 1911, at the request of the family,Adams wrote a biography of ‘Bay’ Lodge, who died at 36.

337 “Louise”: a new opera (1900) in the naturalist mode by GustaveCharpentier (1860–1956).

Mounet Sully: Jean Mounet Sully (1841–1916), popular French actor.Théatre Français: the distinguished state theatre of France, home of LaComédie Français. Molière established the nucleus of the company in1658, and it quickly became the principal theatre company of the country.With its repertoire of neo-classic tragedies and French comedies, it wasrenowned for its formal acting and stylized staging which only graduallybecame more expressive.

338 Baireuth: or Bayreuth, a town in Bavaria, Germany and home of the oper-atic composer Richard Wagner (1813–83). In 1876 Wagner’s patron, KingLudwig of Bavaria, built a theatre in Bayreuth especially designed for theproduction of his operas. Adams was in Bayreuth with the Lodges from 25July to 3 August 1901, and he had mixed feelings about the experience: ‘Igot more pleasure, by far, from the regular theatrical performances. I feltmy Wagner much better in bits. Too much of him, or of any other artist,gives dyspepsia. . . . My conviction that such a monstrosity of form issimply proof of our loss of artistic sense, is stronger than ever.’ Lett. v. 272.Ternina: Milka Ternina (1864–1941), celebrated singer of Wagnerianopera much admired by Adams and his friends for the passionate abandonof her performances.

339 Fluch-motif: curse motif from Wagner’s The Ring of the Nibelung.Pantheon: grandiose memorial near the Latin Quarter containing the tombsof Rousseau, Voltaire, Victor Hugo, and other well-known Frenchmen.

“Grane, mein Ross”: ‘Grane, my horse’, on which Brünnhilde rides intoSiegfried’s funeral pyre.

Frau Wagner and the Heiliger Geist: following Wagner’s death in 1883, hiswidow Cosima Wagner and her son Siegfried directed the annual festival ofWagner’s music and operas at Bayreuth with absolute adherence toWagner’s elaborate stagecraft. The ‘Heiliger Geist’ or Holy Ghost figuresin the last opera, Parsifal.Hegel and Schopenhauer: Georg Friedrich Hegel (1770–1860), Germanidealist philosopher and phenomenologist whose analysis of historicaldevelopment consisted of thesis, countered by antithesis, leading to syn-thesis which in turn served as thesis for the next opposition in the dialect-ical process. Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860), the German philosopherof pessimism, understood man as controlled by Will, a non-rational forcewhich made for never-ending conflict and tension.

340 Kropotkin: Prince Peter Kropotkin (1842–1921), Russian geographer andexplorer but most famous as a revolutionary anarchist and author ofModern Science and Anarchism (1903).

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342 Khirgis: also Kirghiz, a nomadic Mongolian-Tartar people inhabitingsoutheastern Russia, western Siberia, and Russian central Asia.

Wallace: Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace (1841–1919), British journalist;author of a two-volume study of Russia (1877).

Gorki: Maxim Gorky (1868–1936), pseudonym of A. M. Peshkov, Russianwriter of realistic stories of the working class; his drama The Lower Depths(1903) depicted the outcasts of society.

Mr. de Witte: Count Sergey Yulyevich Witte (1849–1915), Russian minis-ter of finance, 1892–1906; progressive statesman who reformed the cur-rency to attract foreign capital.

Prince Khilkoff: (d. 1909), Russian engineer, worked in the USA andVenezuela; supervised the development of the Trans-Siberian railway.

343 “Moi? . . . peindre”: from ‘La Besace’ (‘The Wallet’). Jupiter, who has sum-moned his subjects to hear their complaints, invites the monkey to speakfirst: ‘I? Why not? | Have I not four feet as well as the others? | My face sofar has not offended me; | But as for my brother the bear, he’s only a roughdraft; | Nothing, take my word for it, that anyone would paint.’

344 Freeman: Edward Augustus Freeman (1823–92), English historian whoseHistory of the Norman Conquest Adams had reviewed critically in the NorthAmerican Review, January 1872 (unsigned).

345 an attempt on the life of President McKinley: on 6 September 1901, fivemonths after his inauguration for a second term, McKinley was shot by ananarchist. The president died on 14 September and the vice-president,Theodore Roosevelt, took office at the age of 43.

hourly reports . . . the faults of the solar system: Atlantic cables broughtnews instantaneously, without regard to the time zones—in contrast tonewspapers, published only in the morning or afternoon according to localtime.

346 ne plus ultra: no more beyond, go no further, the culmination.347 Mr. de Plehve: Vyacheslav Plehve (1846–1904), director of Russian state

police and minister of the interior from 1902; his preference for militaryexpansion to counter de Witte’s gradual economic penetration of the eastand his brutal policy in Armenia, Poland, and Lithuania and encourage-ment of pogroms against the Jews led to his assassination: he was killed bya bomb thrown by a revolutionary terrorist on 28 July 1904.

348 Three hideous political murders: Lincoln in 1865; Garfield in 1881;McKinley in 1901.

the accidental death of . . . Del Hay: (1877–1901), the son of John Hay whofell to his death from a college window during a class reunion at Yale.

Ça vous amuse, la vie?: ‘So you find life amusing?’ The quotations in thisparagraph are from the letters of John Hay to Henry Adams found inLetters of John Hay and Extracts from Diary, 3 vols., ed. Clara Hay (com-piled by Henry Adams) (Washington, 1908). Hay died in 1905.

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349 Lucius Seneca: (?4 bce–65 ce), famous Roman philosopher and writer;councillor of the emperor Nero, although the emperor accused him oftreason and commanded him to take his own life.

Nero Claudius: (37–68 ce), Roman emperor notorious for the cruelty of hisreign.

Power is poison: an echo of Lord Acton’s phrase, ‘Power tends to corrupt;absolute power corrupts absolutely’ in a letter to Bishop MandellCreighton, 1887.

353 treaty rights: allusion to the Clayton–Bulwer Treaty of 1850, superseded in1901 by the Hay–Pauncefote Treaty which gave the USA exclusive controlof the proposed Panama Canal.

354 Canada alone could give trouble: reference to the dispute over the Alaska–Canada boundary.

England assumed the task: the traditional rivalry between England andFrance eased with the Anglo-French Convention of 1904 permitting thedevelopment of an ‘Atlantic system’ which Adams advocated to Hay.

Jaurès and Bebel: Jean Léon Jaurès (1859–1914), French socialist politicianand editor, killed by an assassin; August Bebel (1840–1913), German SocialDemocratic statesman and writer on socialism.

355 the Mikado: ‘Mikado’ Mutshito, reign name Meiji (1852–1912), emperor ofJapan from 1867 to 1912.

356 one drifted back . . . Bois de Boulogne: the Paris apartment of the Camerons,which was frequently lent to Adams and where he did a great deal of writ-ing, was at 23, Avenue du Bois de Boulogne.

Reynolds Hitt: (1876–1938), third secretary of the legation, Paris, later tobecome second secretary of the legation in Berlin. At this period Adamswas completing Mont-Saint-Michel and reading widely in science.

357 vis a tergo: force from behind.ennui: boredom.“So passes . . . venom”: from section XXVI, ‘Misere de l’homme’, Pensées ofBlaise Pascal, 1670 edition. The translation appears to be by Adams him-self.

“If goodness . . . breast”: concluding lines to George Herbert’s ‘The Pulley’.St. Bernard: Bernard of Clairvaux (1091–1153), founder of the Cistercianmonastery of Clairvaux, France, noted theologian and, as a mystic, an op-ponent of rationalist philosophy. He initiated the Second Crusade. Theopposition between St Bernard and Aquinas condenses the discussionAdams provides in chs. XV and XVI in Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres.The final three chapters of the book explore the parallels between thedilemmas of medieval Christian philosophy and modern scientific theory.

358 Energetik of the Germans: a term adopted by a school of German natural sci-entists which conceives the fundamental essence of things to be energy.

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Haeckel: Ernst Heinrich Haeckel (1834–1919), German biologist andmonistic philosopher. Adams carefully studied the French version ofHaeckel’s Weltratsel (1899), translated as Les Énigmes de l’Univers (1902).Adams refers to him several times in last two chapters of Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres.Ernst Mach: (1838–1916), Austrian physicist and philosopher of sciencewho privileged sensory experience and stressed the transitional nature ofscientific knowledge, although he ultimately upheld a monistic view of theworld.

359 1450: the year Pope Eugenius IV called a general council to reaffirm thedoctrines of the Roman church, temporarily uniting eastern and westernbranches of the church.

360 Hartmann: Eduard von Hartmann (1842–1906), German philosopher,author of The Philosophy of the Unconscious (1869), which asserted the pri-macy of the Will.

361 as Mephistopheles said of Marguerite: allusion to Goethe’s Faust, Part I,where the remorseful Faust, after seducing Gretchen, hears from the cyn-ical Mephistopheles that Gretchen was not the first woman to be seduced.Marguerite appears in Gounod’s opera based on Goethe, and Adams mayhave confused the two.

ynxh́: Greek for ‘psyche’, mind.362 Welsh rarebit: melted cheese, mixed with beer or ale, on toast.

binary stars: double stars which revolve around one another. Astronomywas one of Adams’s enthusiasms.

363 to fix a position for himself: Adams’s correspondence reveals that the writingof the second work grew out of the first and that they were not plannedsimultaneously.

364 Vis Inertiae: Latin term in physics meaning the force of inertia, a propertyof matter resistant to change of motion, today commonly called inertia.

Jefferson: Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), third president of the USA,1801–9, and a central figure in Adams’s History of the United States.Studied law, joined the Revolutionary party and took a prominent role inthe first Continental Congress, drafting the Declaration of Independence.Later, governor of Virginia, minister to France, and secretary of state.Vice-president under John Adams, succeeding him to the presidency in1801.

Gallatin: Albert Gallatin (1761–1849), subject of a biography by HenryAdams. See note to p. 280, above.

Madison: James Madison (1751–1836), fourth president of the USA,1809–17, another central figure in Adams’s History. Entered politics in1776, playing a major role in the Constitutional Convention of 1787, be-coming known as ‘the father of the Constitution’. Collaborated in writingthe Federalist Papers. Secretary of state under Jefferson and president fortwo terms.

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364 Michael Herbert: (1857–1903), served as British ambassador to the USAuntil his death in 1903.

365 Speck von Sternburg: Baron Hermann Speck von Sternburg (1852–1908),German ambassador to the USA, 1903–8.

366 Lamsdorf: Count Vladimir Lamsdorf (1845–1907), Russian statesman,minister of foreign affairs who tried to promote peaceful negotiations withJapan over Manchuria and Korea, but failed.

J. Q. Adams: President Madison had sent Adams to St Petersburg as theAmerican minister in 1809 at the moment when the Czar decided to breakwith Napoleon. Adams had broken with his own party, the Federalists, inorder to support Jefferson’s policies, action which cost him re-election tothe Senate in 1808. However, the success of his mission to Russia in devel-oping American commerce led to his appointment as one of the negotiatorsof the Treaty of Ghent in 1814 and then to appointment as minister toEngland. In 1817 he became secretary of state under Monroe and in 1825,president.

1862: when Adams was in London as private secretary to his father, minis-ter to England. In 1863, when war threatened over Poland, Russia sentfleets off New York and San Francisco to be ready to attack British com-merce, a move that was interpreted as aid to the North.

367 vis nova: new force or energy.369 Bessie: Matilda Elizabeth (Davis) Lodge, wife of George Cabot ‘Bay’

Lodge. As a result of their marriage (on 8 August 1900), ‘Bay’ left Paris forBoston, much to Adams’s regret.

371 Clerk Maxwell’s perfect gas: James Clerk Maxwell (1831–79), British physi-cist whose research related to the ‘kinetic theory of gases’: at a given tem-perature the product of the pressure and the volume should be constant ina perfect gas.

Dames or Daughters: Colonial Dames and Daughters of the AmericanRevolution, women’s patriotic societies.

ephemera: the ephemera or mayfly undergoes extreme transformations in itsvery short lifetime, which in some species is less than a day.

372 Eocene: the first geological period in which mammals appeared.373 Marguerite: allusion to the female protagonist in Gounod’s opera Faust

(1859), Gretchen in Goethe’s play.

375 Wolcott Gibbs: Oliver Wolcott Gibbs (1822–1919), distinguished chemistwho was a colleague of Adams’s at Harvard in the 1870s.

Karl Pearson: (1857–1936), English scientist and mathematician. TheGrammar of Science (1899) was considered a classic; Adams heavily markedhis copy of the second edition (1900), read in 1903. Pearson is regarded asthe founder of statistics as applied to biological and social science. In 1902he established Biometrika, a leading journal of statistical theory.Willard Gibbs: the reference to Williard Gibbs was inserted as a correctionin the Thayer copy but not adopted by the editors of the 1918 edition. See

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note to p. 315, above, and ‘Note on the Text’ for a discussion of this error byAdams.

376 Sir William Crookes: (1832–1919), chemist, president of the Royal Society;discovered thallium; separated uranium-X from uranium. In June 1899, inthe Smithsonian Institution Reports, he declared that mankind was on thebrink of an unseen world.

“elementary textbook”: the passages are from the first edition of Pearson’sThe Grammar of Science (1899).

377 “One God . . . moves”: the final lines of the Epilogue of Tennyson’s InMemoriam (1850).1893: Adams here incorrectly dates the discovery of Roentgen rays as 1893;they were discovered in 1895.

378 Civitas Dei: alludes to St Augustine’s work, The City of God, in twenty-twovolumes (412–27).

Civitas Romae: the Roman state. Adams explains the relations of theseterms in Ch. XXXIII of the Education.Ostwald: Wilhelm Ostwald (1853–1932), German physical chemist andinventor. Adams read his Vorlesungen über Naturphilosophie (1902). For alist of other scientific books studied and annotated by Adams at this time,see Ernest Samuels, The Education of Henry Adams (Boston: HoughtonMifflin, 1973), 673 n. 16.

379 M. Poincaré: Jules Henri Poincaré (1854–1912), eminent French mathem-atician and physicist with an interest in astronomy. Did important work ondifferential equations and the theory of orbits. Chaos theory originated inpart in an 1889 paper of his on real differential equations and celestialmechanics. Published several books on the philosophy of science and sci-entific method.

“[In science] we are led . . . shall not become impossible”: the passages, trans-lated by Adams, are from Poincaré’s La Science et l’Hypothèse (1902), ch.VIII.

381 Zeno and his arrow: Zeno (490–430 bce), Greek philosopher who argued inone of his paradoxes that since an arrow is at rest at every instant of its flightit is therefore at rest in the whole of its flight.

382 310: a round number chosen by Adams for the year 312 ce, the date of thebattle of the Milvian Bridge at Rome which signalled the defeat of thepagan system and the victory of the Christian order.

Arthur Balfour announced: (1848–1930), English philosopher and states-man whom Adams knew. Among his positions were chief secretary forIreland, first lord of the treasury, and leader of the House of Commons. Asforeign secretary under Lloyd George he was responsible for the BalfourDeclaration (1917), which promised Zionists a homeland in Palestine. Thereference is to Balfour’s presidential address before the British Associationon 17 August 1904, entitled ‘On the Future of Science’.

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382 “All that we win . . . nature.”: the author of this epigram has not beenidentified.

383 nacre: mother-of-pearl.“Alma Venus . . . studeo!”: from Lucretius, De Rerum Natura: ‘Life-givingVenus, who beneath the gliding stars of heaven fills with your presence thesea that bears our ships and the land that bears our crops. . . . Since youalone govern the nature of things and nothing comes forth into the shoresof light nor is glad or lovely without you, I crave your help.’

384 Helmholz: Herman Helmholz (1821–94), German scientist whose researchin physiological optics was significant but is cited here for his work regard-ing theories of electromagnetic induction and the distribution of energy inmechanical systems.

385 Viceroy Alexeieff: General Mikhail Alexeyev (1857–1918), Russian general;the Czar’s viceroy in the Far East.

386 blague: humbug or nonsense. Adams was on friendly terms with CountCassini but his sympathies lay with the Japanese in part because of hisconfidential relationship with the Japanese emissary Baron KentaroKaneko.

Brooks: Brooks Adams was now a prominent writer on public affairs whoadmired Theodore Roosevelt and was one of the president’s close butunofficial advisers.

Miss Chamberlain: Mary Edicott Chamberlain, American-born daughterof the British liberal statesman, Joseph Chamberlain, a longtime acquain-tance of Adams’s.

quos ego: literally, ‘whom I’. A Latin rhetorical device of breaking off a re-mark to convey a threat, as if overcome by emotion. From Neptune’s out-burst against the disobedient winds in Virgil’s Aeneid, i. 135.

387 last great triumph: Hay’s policy to preserve the territorial integrity of Chinaand to keep China open to trade with all nations was confirmed by theAnglo-Japanese alliance which assisted the Japanese defeat of the Russiansin the war of 1904–5.

388 Sargent: John Singer Sargent (1856–1925), American portrait painter andmuralist born in Florence who completed a painting of Hay in February1903. Sargent began the portrait in the intervals when President Rooseveltwas not available for the sittings required to complete his official WhiteHouse portrait, which Sargent was also painting. Adams thought theportrait of Hay ‘good, of course, since it is Sargent, but also fairly like agentleman’ (Lett. v. 462).Shawnee: a Native American tribe from Oklahoma.John Hay . . . on its shores: born in Salem, Indiana, in 1838; spent his youthin Warsaw, Illinois on the banks of the Mississippi. As a law student inSpringfield, Illinois, he met Lincoln and in 1861 accompanied him toWashington as his assistant private secretary. See note to p. 58, above.

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St. Louis Exposition: the World’s Fair was held in St Louis in 1904 to celeb-rate the centennial of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France.Adams deprecates St Louis for rhetorical effect in order to praise theExposition. He went there to accompany Secretary of State John Hay, whorepresented the president.

389 Emir Mirza: an allusion to Joseph Addison’s ‘Visions of Mirza’, Spectator,159, where the essayist pretends to have read the visions in an oriental man-uscript in Cairo, one of great misery, the other of great beauty.

390 the Virgin: for Adams’s description of the remarkable beauty of theCathedral of Notre Dame (Our Lady) at Coutances, see Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres, ch. IV.Fête Dieu: Corpus Christi day, an important festival honouring theEucharist (the sacrament of bread and wine) commemorating the death ofChrist in the Roman Catholic church.

to buy an automobile: In order to ease his research in visiting the cathedralsof France, Adams ‘bought an automobile, a very pretty Mercedes, 18 h.p.,and hoped to live in it, but, to my great relief and satisfaction, the inspectordelays for weeks to give me a number, and the chauffeur always has a reasonfor sending the machine to the shops. Between them I am quite happy, andnever have to go out-doors.’ To a friend he confided, ‘[I] mount the popu-lar machine of the day . . . and pound about the world, like any other idiot,sitting en panne on the top of every solitary hill in France and in the centreof every crowded street in Paris.’ Lett. v. 596, 594.

391 “Both were faiths and both are gone.”: Arnold, ‘Stanzas from the GrandChartreuse’, l. 84. The line correctly reads, ‘For both were faiths, and bothare gone.’

star-showers thrown: quoted from Shelley’s ‘Stanzas. Written in Dejection.Near Naples’ (1818).

392 One dared not . . . one’s glass: Adams habitually carried binoculars for view-ing stained-glass windows. Champagne is an ancient province north ofParis; Touraine, an old province along the Loire near Tours.

leibwache: German for bodyguard.Fouquet: Jean Fouquet (c. 1146–80), court painter of Louis XI, master illu-minator of religious books; his altarpieces and portraits created a sensationwhen exhibited in Paris in 1904. Adams evidently attended the show.

Pinturicchio: Bernardino di Betti (1454–1513), Italian painter of religiousfrescoes and altarpieces noted for the minuteness of finish of the heads.

culp: from the Latin, ‘mea culpa’, I am guilty.Thibaut of Champagne: Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and king ofNavarre (1201–56), most famous of the early French lyrical or courtlypoets. Cited frequently by Adams in Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres.Sieur de Joinville: Jean de Joinville (c. 1224–1317), famous for his intimatechronicle of the reign of King Louis IX (Saint Louis). A native of the

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province of Champagne, of which Troyes was the capital. Cited through-out Adams’s Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres.

393 Hippodrome: an allusion to the destruction and sacking of Constantinoplein the Fourth Crusade (1202–4). In imagination Adams was recalling notonly the actors in Jean de Joinville’s chronicle but also those from Troyeswho figured in Geoffroy de Villehardouin’s Conquest of Constantinople(1198–1207), an eyewitness account by one of the leaders. French cru-saders and Venetian allies abandoned religious objectives in order to de-stroy their commercial rivals, whose city was the capital of the EasternChristian empire. Among the trophies carried off from the monumentalHippodrome were the four bronze horses which stand atop St Mark’sCathedral in Piazza San Marco, Venice.

Church of St. Pantaleon: one of the numerous Renaissance churches in thecity of Troyes, St. Pantaleon being especially noted for its sixteenth-century stained-glass and its multitude of sixteenth-century statues.Adams discusses the history of Troyes in ch. XI of Mont-Saint-Michel andChartres.the square . . . a right-angled triangle: a reference to the Pythagorean the-orem that the square of the hypotenuse of a right-angle triangle is equal tothe sum of the squares of the other two sides.

Groombridge: Stephen Groombridge (1755–1832), astronomer and WestIndia merchant whose Catalogue of Circumpolar Stars was published in1838, the year of Adams’s birth; it recorded his discovery of star No. 1830,the swiftest moving of all observed stars at that time.

397 Emperor Diocletian: (245–313 ce), Roman emperor who ordered a generalpersecution of Christians in 303 in an attempt to strengthen the pagan statereligion.

399 In hoc signo vinces!: ‘with this sign you shall conquer.’Theodosius: (346–95 ce), famous Roman general and emperor of the East;accepted the ecclesiastical authority of Ambrose, Bishop of Milan.

Turgot: Robert Jacques Turgot (1727–81), French statesman and econom-ist; presented his idea of social development in The Successive Advances ofthe Human Mind (1750), where he stated that ‘All epochs are fastened to-gether by a sequence of causes and effects, linking the condition of theworld to all the conditions that have gone before it.’

400 Alaric: (376?–410 ce), famous king of the West Goths who had servedunder Theodosius; he subsequently turned against Rome and sacked thecity in 410.

Bishop Augustine of Hippo: St Augustine (354–430 ce), author of the City ofGod and the Confessions. Latin father of the Catholic church who studied inCarthage and later, in 383, taught in Rome and Milan. Baptized by StAmbrose in 386 following his conversion to Christianity. Returned toAfrica in 396 as Bishop of Hippo. He was killed in the Vandal invasion ofHippo.

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401 Sancta Sofia: a masterpiece of Byzantine church architecture, built by theemperor Justinian, converted into a Muslim mosque in 1453 after the fall ofConstantinople, which marked the end of the Eastern Roman empire.

Justinian: (483–565 ce), the best-known Byzantine emperor, whose great-est contributions were the codification of Roman law (the Justinian Code)and his military victories which extended the empire and henceChristianity.

Nicephoras Phocas: (912–69), emperor of the Eastern Roman empire(963–9), distinguished as a military leader in the wars with the Saracens.

two new natural forces: gunpowder and the compass.402 the Crescent: the symbol of Mohammedanism or Islam.

Manichean doctrine: theological doctrine of Persian Mani which taught thatthe world was the scene of a struggle between the forces of darkness andlight. It was declared heretical in the fifth century.

the compass: The first known reference to the compass in Europe was in thetwelfth century, although legend has it that it appeared earlier in China.

gunpowder: an inflammable substance said to have been invented byCallinicus of Heliopolis, who used it in Constantinople to set fire to enemyships. Use by Byzantine Greeks was common in the Middle Ages. The firstEuropean reference to gunpowder is in a Florentine document of 1326.

403 St. Jerome: (c.340–420 ce), important church father who made the Latin(Vulgate) translation of the Bible. The parallel with Bunyan is fanciful,although St Jerome’s effort to establish correct readings of the text meantthat he had to travel widely through the near East to consult biblicalscholars.

Giordano Bruno: (1548–1600), Italian philosopher and scientist who chal-lenged all dogmatism and rejected the possibility of absolute truth.Originally a Dominican friar, he became too unorthodox to remain in theorder; travelled widely in Europe. His championship of Copernicusbrought him into conflict with the Inquisition: he was arrested in 1592 inVenice and after a seven-year trial was burned at the stake as a heretic.

“Nature . . . weights”: Aphorism III, concerning ‘The Interpretation ofNature’, in Francis Bacon, Magna Instauratio (1620). The second sentencemisquotes a passage from Aphorism CIV which reads ‘the understandingmust not therefore be supplied with wings, but rather hung with weights tokeep it from leaping and flying’.

404 “Neither . . . work is done”: Francis Bacon, Aphorism II in MagnaInstauratio (1620).“Non fingendum . . . ferat”: ‘Not by supposition or mere thought but by in-quiry learn what nature does and makes.’ The Latin passage was added byAdams for the 1918 edition; it comes from Bacon, De Dignitate et AugmentisScientiarum (1623), the enlarged Latin version of his Advancement ofLearning (1603).

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405 Priestley: Joseph Priestley (1733–1804), English clergyman and scientist,discoverer of oxygen. Spent the last ten years of his life in the UnitedStates.

Jenner: Edward Jenner (1749–1823), discoverer of vaccination againstsmallpox, first attempted in 1796.

Fulton: Robert Fulton (1765–1815), American engineer who designed thefirst practical steamboat in 1807. In his History of the United States, Adamsquotes Fulton’s account of how his steamboat had been widely ridiculedand called ‘Fulton’s folly’.

407 Leonids and Perseids: Leonids: a meteor shower in the constellation Leo oc-curring annually about 14 November. Perseids: a meteoric shower in theconstellation Perseus occurring annually about 12 August.

perfect comet . . . 1843: the Great Comet of 1843, one of the most spectacu-lar recorded, had a tail estimated to be 200,000 miles in length.

408 Laplace: Pierre Laplace (1749–1827), French astronomer and mathem-atician. His discovery of the cause of the great inequality in the orbits ofSaturn and Jupiter was considered a brilliant advance in physical astro-nomy.

Newcomen’s engines: Thomas Newcomen (1663–1729), with two co-workers, invented the atmospheric steam engine, patented in 1705, used topump water into mines.

Volta: Alessandro Volta (1745–1827), Italian physicist renowned for his re-search in electricity. Invented the voltaic cell generating electricity throughchemical action, the origin of the electric storage battery. The electric ‘volt’as a unit of measurement is named after him.

Dalton: John Dalton (1766–1844), English chemist; perfected the atomictheory of matter about 1804 and in 1810 published A New System ofChemical Philosophy.

409 Boerhaave: Hermann Boerhaave (1668–1738), Dutch physician and scien-tist who published pioneering studies of new botanical species and intro-duced the modern system of clinical instruction in medicine.

Louis XIV: (1638–1715), king of France, 1643–1715, sometimes known asthe ‘Sun King’ for the splendour of his reign. His court was knownthroughout Europe for its encouragement of art and literature, althoughhis military ambitions and vast expenditures nearly bankrupted thecountry.

Huygens: Christian Huygens (1629–95), Dutch physicist and astronomerwho discovered the rings of Saturn and developed the wave-theory of light.

William Harvey: (1578–1657), English physician and physiologist who dis-covered the system for blood circulation in the body described in Essay onthe Motions of the Heart and the Blood (1628).Tycho Brahe: (1546–1601), Swedish astronomer who in 1573 discoveredvariations in the motions of the moon and other features of the planets as

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recorded in astronomical tables. With unprecedented accuracy, he ob-served the stars and planets in an effort to correct these errors.

410 Newton’s comet: Newton used the Great Comet of 1680 to demonstrate theaccuracy of his orbital theories.

411 the ocean-steamer: 1838, the year of Adams’s birth, marked the feasibility oftransatlantic steamship crossings; the first Cunard ship to make the cross-ing to Boston was the Britannia in 1840.Daguerreotype: the first successful photographic process was invented byLouis Daguerre (1789–1851), a French scene painter and inventor, in 1839.Adams, with his wife Clover, developed a persistent fascination with pho-tography.

412 Pontic Seas: the Black Sea. From Shakespeare’s Othello, iii. iii. 451–3: ‘Liketo the Pontic sea | Whose icy current and compulsive course | Ne’er feelsretiring ebb.’

413 1964: Adams’s choice of date is prophetic: if he had returned that year, hewould have discovered that the World’s Fair was being held in New York.He would likely have attended yet another exposition and would no doubthave been absorbed by the display of new inventions and complex advancesin science.

414 Kant’s . . . four antinomies: in the Critique of Pure Reason (1781), Kant(1724–1804) explained that an antinomy consists of two contradictoryphilosophical statements, a thesis and an antithesis, each of which is prov-able by logical demonstration. The four antinomies are: (1) The world isfinite in time and space; the world is infinite in time and space. (2) Everycomposite substance consists of simple parts; nothing simple exists any-where. (3) Causality does not explain all phenomena; all phenomena occurentirely according to the laws of nature. (4) As part of the world or as itscause, there is an absolutely necessary being; there is no absolutely neces-sary being.

415 Nunc Age: ‘now follow through, now act’, literally in Latin, ‘now go.’Battle of Trusts: the battle over regulation of the power of trusts to do harm.In 1904 Roosevelt’s attorney general successfully prosecuted the NorthernSecurities Company, a railroad holding company, as a combination in re-straint of trade. Armed with the Supreme Court ruling, Roosevelt obtainedtwenty-five additional indictments.

417 perihelion: point of a planet’s or comet’s orbit nearest to the sun.Captain Scott: Robert Falcon Scott (1868–1912), British explorer whoseexpedition in the Discovery surveyed large areas of the Antarctic; in 1912 hereached the South Pole but died with four companions during the arduousreturn journey.

Purun Dass: a character in Rudyard Kipling’s ‘The Miracle of PurunBhagat’, a story in which the prime minister voluntarily becomes a home-less religious mendicant (Second Jungle Book, 1905).

419 Nervi: an Italian winter resort near Genoa.

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419 Nauheim: famous health resort and spa near Frankfurt, Germany, whichwould become the setting for Ford Madox Ford’s The Good Soldier (1915).“The rest is silence!”: Shakespeare, Hamlet, v. ii. 368.Hay was dead: John Hay died on 1 July 1905.

320 1938: an ironic yet prescient choice since that year Germany annexedAustria and Chamberlain supposedly bought ‘peace in our time’ by meansof the Munich Agreement of September 1938. Within a year, World War IIwould begin. In a letter of 27 June 1904, Adams provided another unusu-ally prophetic forecast: ‘If I could live to the end of my century—1938—Iam sure I should see the silly bubble explode. My age is the first that wasever absolutely lunatic, and whether I alone imagined it . . . or a half-dozenof us, the absurdity of the dream screams aloud . . . . Out of a mediaeval,primitive, crawling infant of 1838, to find oneself a howling, steaming, ex-ploding, Marconing, radiumating, automobiling maniac of 1904 exceedsbelief ’ (Lett. v. 592).

492 Explanatory Notes

Adams, H. (2009). The education of henry adams : Education of henry adams. Oxford University Press USA – OSO.Created from southernmethodist on 2021-12-14 13:56:59.

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How it Works

  1. Clіck оn the “Place оrder tab at the tоp menu оr “Order Nоw” іcоn at the bоttоm, and a new page wіll appear wіth an оrder fоrm tо be fіlled.
  2. Fіll іn yоur paper’s іnfоrmatіоn and clіck “PRІCE CALCULATІОN” at the bоttоm tо calculate yоur оrder prіce.
  3. Fіll іn yоur paper’s academіc level, deadlіne and the requіred number оf pages frоm the drоp-dоwn menus.
  4. Clіck “FІNAL STEP” tо enter yоur regіstratіоn detaіls and get an accоunt wіth us fоr recоrd keepіng.
  5. Clіck оn “PRОCEED TО CHECKОUT” at the bоttоm оf the page.
  6. Frоm there, the payment sectіоns wіll shоw, fоllоw the guіded payment prоcess, and yоur оrder wіll be avaіlable fоr оur wrіtіng team tо wоrk оn іt.

Nоte, оnce lоgged іntо yоur accоunt; yоu can clіck оn the “Pendіng” buttоn at the left sіdebar tо navіgate, make changes, make payments, add іnstructіоns оr uplоad fіles fоr the оrder created. e.g., оnce lоgged іn, clіck оn “Pendіng” and a “pay” оptіоn wіll appear оn the far rіght оf the оrder yоu created, clіck оn pay then clіck оn the “Checkоut” оptіоn at the next page that appears, and yоu wіll be able tо cоmplete the payment.

Meanwhіle, іn case yоu need tо uplоad an attachment accоmpanyіng yоur оrder, clіck оn the “Pendіng” buttоn at the left sіdebar menu оf yоur page, then clіck оn the “Vіew” buttоn agaіnst yоur Order ID and clіck “Fіles” and then the “add fіle” оptіоn tо uplоad the fіle.

Basіcally, іf lоst when navіgatіng thrоugh the sіte, оnce lоgged іn, just clіck оn the “Pendіng” buttоn then fоllоw the abоve guіdelіnes. оtherwіse, cоntact suppоrt thrоugh оur chat at the bоttоm rіght cоrner

NB

Payment Prоcess

By clіckіng ‘PRОCEED TО CHECKОUT’ yоu wіll be lоgged іn tо yоur accоunt autоmatіcally where yоu can vіew yоur оrder detaіls. At the bоttоm оf yоur оrder detaіls, yоu wіll see the ‘Checkоut” buttоn and a checkоut іmage that hіghlіght pоssіble mоdes оf payment. Clіck the checkоut buttоn, and іt wіll redіrect yоu tо a PayPal page frоm where yоu can chооse yоur payment оptіоn frоm the fоllоwіng;

  1. Pay wіth my PayPal accоunt‘– select thіs оptіоn іf yоu have a PayPal accоunt.
  2. Pay wіth a debіt оr credіt card’ or ‘Guest Checkout’ – select thіs оptіоn tо pay usіng yоur debіt оr credіt card іf yоu dоn’t have a PayPal accоunt.
  3. Dо nоt fоrget tо make payment sо that the оrder can be vіsіble tо оur experts/tutоrs/wrіters.

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