Question 1

2 / 2 pts

Examination of the throat in a child demonstrating signs and symptoms of acute epiglottitis may contribute to which life-threatening complication?

Retropharyngeal abscess

Laryngospasms

Rupturing of the tonsils

Gagging induced aspiration

Question 2

2 / 2 pts

Causes of hyperkalemia include:

Hyperparathyroidism and malnutrition

Vomiting and diarrhea

Renal failure and Addison disease

Hyperaldosteronism and Cushing disease

Question 3

2 / 2 pts

What is the life span of an erythrocyte (in days)?

20 to 30

60 to 90

100 to 120

200 to 240

Question 4

2 / 2 pts

Which substance has been shown to increase the risk of cancer when used in combination with tobacco smoking?

Alcohol

Steroids

Antihistamines

Antidepressants

Question 5

0 / 2 pts

Which hepatitis virus is known to be sexually transmitted?

A

B

C

D

Question 6

2 / 2 pts

What is the purpose of the spirometry measurement?

To evaluate the cause of hypoxia

To measure the volume and flow rate during forced expiration

To measures the gas diffusion rate at the alveolocapillary membrane

To determine pH and oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations

Question 7

2 / 2 pts

What is the direct action of atrial natriuretic hormone?

Sodium retention

Sodium excretion

Water retention

Water excretion

Question 8

2 / 2 pts

What is the most important negative inotropic agent?

Norepinephrine

Epinephrine

Acetylcholine

Dopamine

Question 9

2 / 2 pts

What is the primary cause of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn?

Immature immune system

Small alveoli

Surfactant deficiency

Anemia

Question 10

2 / 2 pts

An individual is more susceptible to infections of mucous membranes when he or she has a seriously low level of which immunoglobulin antibody?

IgG

IgM

IgA

IgE

Question 11

2 / 2 pts

Low plasma albumin causes edema as a result of a reduction in which pressure?

Capillary hydrostatic

Interstitial hydrostatic

Plasma oncotic

Interstitial oncotic

Question 12

2 / 2 pts

Erythrocyte life span of less than 120 days, ineffective bone marrow response to erythropoietin, and altered iron metabolism describe the pathophysiologic characteristics of which type of anemia?

Aplastic

Sideroblastic

Anemia of chronic disease

Iron deficiency

Question 13

2 / 2 pts

An infant’s hemoglobin must fall below ___ g/dl before signs of pallor, tachycardia, and systolic murmurs occur.

11

9

7

5

Question 14

2 / 2 pts

What part of the kidney controls renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, and renin secretion?

Macula densa

Visceral epithelium

Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)

Filtration slits

Question 15

2 / 2 pts

The lung is innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system via which nerve?

Vagus

Phrenic

Brachial

Pectoral

Question 16

2 / 2 pts

Which statement best describes a Schilling test?

Administration of radioactive cobalamin and the measurement of its excretion in the urine to test for vitamin B12 deficiency

Measurement of antigen-antibody immune complexes in the blood to test for hemolytic anemia

Measurement of serum ferritin and total iron-binding capacity in the blood to test for iron deficiency anemia

Administration of folate and measurement in 2 hours of its level in a blood sample to test for folic acid deficiency anemia.

Question 17

2 / 2 pts

Which disorder results in decreased erythrocytes and platelets with changes in leukocytes and has clinical manifestations of pallor, fatigue, petechiae, purpura, bleeding, and fever?

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA)

Question 18

2 / 2 pts

Which compensatory mechanism is spontaneously used by children diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot to relieve hypoxic spells?

Lying on their left side

Performing the Valsalva maneuver

Squatting

Hyperventilating

Question 19

2 / 2 pts

Which hormone is required for water to be reabsorbed in the distal tubule and collecting duct?

Antidiuretic hormone

Aldosterone

Cortisol

Adrenocorticotropin hormone

Question 20

2 / 2 pts

What is the fundamental physiologic manifestation of anemia?

Hypotension

Hyperesthesia

Hypoxia

Ischemia

Question 21

2 / 2 pts

Continuous increases in left ventricular filing pressures result in which disorder?

Mitral regurgitation

Mitral stenosis

Pulmonary edema

Jugular vein distention

Question 22

2 / 2 pts

Which T-lymphocyte phenotype is the key determinant of childhood asthma?

Cluster of differentiation (CD) 4 T-helper Th1 lymphocytes

CD4 T-helper Th2 lymphocytes

CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes

Memory T lymphocytes

Question 23

2 / 2 pts

Innervation of the bladder and internal urethral sphincter is supplied by which nerves?

Peripheral nerves

Parasympathetic fibers

Sympathetic nervous system

Tenth thoracic nerve roots

Question 24

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following is classified as a megaloblastic anemia?

Iron deficiency

Pernicious

Sideroblastic

Hemolytic

Question 25

2 / 2 pts

When an individual aspirates food particles, where would the nurse expect to hear decreased or absent breath sounds?

Left lung

Right lung

Trachea

Carina

Question 26

0 / 2 pts

The most common site of metastasis for a patient diagnosed with prostate cancer is which location?

Bones

Brain

Bladder

Kidney

Question 27

2 / 2 pts

Perceived stress elicits an emotional, anticipatory response that begins where?

Prefrontal cortex

Anterior pituitary

Limbic system

Hypothalamus

Question 28

2 / 2 pts

Which manifestations of vasoocclusive crisis are associated with sickle cell disease (SCD) in infants?

Atelectasis and pneumonia

Edema of the hands and feet

Stasis ulcers of the hands, ankles, and feet

Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly

Question 29

2 / 2 pts

Which cytokines initiate the production of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)?

IL–1 and IL-6

IL-2 and TNF-?

IFN and IL-12

TNF-ß and IL-4

Question 30

2 / 2 pts

The generation of clonal diversity occurs primarily during which phase of life?

Fetal

Neonatal

Infancy

Puberty

Question 31

2 / 2 pts

Where in the respiratory tract do the majority of foreign objects aspirated by children finally lodge?

Trachea

Left lung

Bronchus

Bronchioles

Question 32

2 / 2 pts

Which immunoglobulin (Ig) is present in childhood asthma?

IgM

IgG

IgE

IgA

Question 33

2 / 2 pts

Between which months of age does sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) most often occur?

0 and 1

2 and 4

5 and 6

6 and 7

Question 34

2 / 2 pts

Which complex (wave) represents the sum of all ventricular muscle cell depolarizations?

PRS

QRS

QT interval

P

Question 35

2 / 2 pts

When a patient has small, vesicular lesions that last between 10 and 20 days, which sexually transmitted infection is suspected?

Genital herpes

Chancroid

Syphilis

Chlamydia

Question 36

2 / 2 pts

What is the chief predisposing factor for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn?

Low birth weight

Alcohol consumption during pregnancy

Premature birth

Smoking during pregnancy

Question 37

2 / 2 pts

Which statement concerning exotoxins is true?

Exotoxins are contained in cell walls of gram-negative bacteria.

Exotoxins are released during the lysis of bacteria.

Exotoxins are able to initiate the complement and coagulation cascades.

Exotoxins are released during bacterial growth.

Question 38

2 / 2 pts

Deficiencies in which element can produce depression of both B- and T-cell function?

Iron

Zinc

Iodine

Magnesium

Question 39

0 / 2 pts

The function of the foramen ovale in a fetus allows what to occur?

Right-to-left blood shunting

Left-to-right blood shunting

Blood flow from the umbilical cord

Blood flow to the lungs

Question 40

2 / 2 pts

Decreased lung compliance means that the lungs are demonstrating which characteristic?

Difficult deflation

Easy inflation

Stiffness

Inability to diffuse oxygen

Question 41

2 / 2 pts

If the sinoatrial (SA) node fails, then at what rate (depolarizations per minute) can the atri-oventricular (AV) node depolarize?

60 to 70

40 to 60

30 to 40

10 to 20

Question 42

2 / 2 pts

Which statement concerning benign tumors is true?

The resulting pain is severe.

Benign tumors are not encapsulated.

Benign tumors are fast growing.

The cells are well-differentiated.

Question 43

2 / 2 pts

How much urine accumulates in the bladder before the mechanoreceptors sense bladder fullness?

75 to 100 ml

100 to 150 ml

250 to 300 ml

350 to 400 ml

Question 44

2 / 2 pts

How high does the plasma glucose have to be before the threshold for glucose is achieved?

126 mg/dl

150 mg/dl

180 mg/dl

200 mg/dl

Question 45

0 / 2 pts

Apoptosis is a(an):

Normal mechanism for cells to self-destruct when growth is excessive

Antigrowth signal activated by the tumor-suppressor gene Rb

Mutation of cell growth stimulated by the TP53 gene

Transformation of cells from dysplasia to anaplasia

Question 46

0 / 2 pts

What is the role of collagen in the clotting process?

Initiates the clotting cascade.

Activates platelets.

Stimulates fibrin.

Deactivates fibrinogen.

Question 47

0 / 2 pts

Infants are most susceptible to significant losses in total body water because of an infant’s:

High body surface–to–body size ratio

Slow metabolic rate

Kidneys are not mature enough to counter fluid losses

Inability to communicate adequately when he or she is thirsty

Question 48

0 / 2 pts

What is the action of urodilatin?

Urodilatin causes vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles.

It causes vasodilation of the efferent arterioles.

Urodilatin inhibits antidiuretic hormone secretion.

It inhibits salt and water reabsorption.

Question 49

0 / 2 pts

Which cardiac chamber has the thinnest wall and why?

The right and left atria; they are low-pressure chambers that serve as storage units and conduits for blood.

The right and left atria; they are not directly involved in the preload, contractility, or afterload of the heart.

The left ventricle; the mean pressure of blood coming into this ventricle is from the lung, which has a low pressure.

The right ventricle; it pumps blood into the pulmonary capillaries, which have a lower pressure compared with the systemic circulation.

Question 50

0 / 2 pts

Research supports the premise that exercise has a probable impact on reducing the risk of which cancer?

Liver

Endometrial

Stomach

Colon

Question 51

0 / 2 pts

What is the trigone?

A smooth muscle that comprises the orifice of the ureter

The inner mucosal lining of the kidneys

A smooth triangular area between the openings of the two ureters and the urethra

One of the three divisions of the loop of Henle

Question 52

2 / 2 pts

What is the most abundant class of plasma protein?

Globulin

Albumin

Clotting factors

Complement proteins

Question 53

2 / 2 pts

The glomerular filtration rate is directly related to which factor?

Perfusion pressure in the glomerular capillaries

Diffusion rate in the renal cortex

Diffusion rate in the renal medulla

Glomerular active transport

Question 54

0 / 2 pts

Which cells have phagocytic properties similar to monocytes and contract like smooth muscles cells, thereby influencing the glomerular filtration rate?

Principle cells

Podocin cells

Mesangial cells

Intercalated cells

Question 55

0 / 2 pts

Why is nasal congestion a serious threat to young infants?

Infants are obligatory nose breathers.

Their noses are small in diameter.

Infants become dehydrated when mouth breathing.

Their epiglottis is proportionally greater than the epiglottis of an adult’s.

Question 56

2 / 2 pts

The risk for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) decreases for premature infants when they are born between how many weeks of gestation?

16 and 20

20 and 24

24 and 30

30 and 36

Question 57

2 / 2 pts

What is the ratio of coronary capillaries to cardiac muscle cells?

1:1 (one capillary per one muscle cell)

1:2 (one capillary per two muscle cells)

1:4 (one capillary per four muscle cells)

1:10 (one capillary per ten muscle cells)

Question 58

2 / 2 pts

A person with type O blood is considered to be the universal blood donor because type O blood contains which of the following?

No antigens

No antibodies

Both A and B antigens

Both A and B antibodies

Question 59

2 / 2 pts

The drug heparin acts in hemostasis by which processes?

Inhibiting thrombin and antithrombin III (AT-III)

Preventing the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin

Shortening the fibrin strands to retract the blood clot

Degrading the fibrin within blood clots

Question 60

2 / 2 pts

What effects do exercise and body position have on renal blood flow?

Exercise and body position activate renal parasympathetic neurons and cause mild vasoconstriction.

They activate renal sympathetic neurons and cause mild vasoconstriction.

Both activate renal parasympathetic neurons and cause mild vasodilation.

They activate renal sympathetic neurons and cause mild vasodilation.

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