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BIO 105 SP22

Chapter 2: Essential Chemistry for Biology

BIO 105 SP22





Updated 31 Jan 22 at 5 pm

Name ______ _____________SUBMITTED ON ___ ___ DATE


Three “Due Dates”:

Encouraged Due Date: Start the work early: Do some before the lecture. That will give you questions to ask during lecture, enhance your lecture experience, increase your chances of remembering the work after the course, and likely will require less time to do the work than if you had not done so.

Recommended Due Date: by 11:59 pm, 7 days from the last scheduled Meeting for that Chapter’s Lecture. Doing this will minimize your chances of falling behind.

Absolute Last Due Date: by 11:59 pm on Monday 16 May 22. One minute after,…. the work is worth 0 points.

Other Rules:

Submitting this Work: Through our Course BHCC Moodle Page only. No submittals through email.

Document Format as received from Moodle is not changed: And it remains an MSWord file.

All work must be typed in ___ ____in the space between the red lines meaning “____ here ____”with the font type, size, and color the same as the lines on each side.

Three things that will result in me not correcting the document nor notifying you of such … if not found on the actual document:

Your name is not in the space provided

The approximate submittal date is not in the space provided..

You do not follow the “Other Rules” stated above.

You may find my GRADING POLICY IS UNUSUAL ….. for work on ALTAs ….and is adjusted to increase the student’s grade ….. meaning:

I have a tendency to take points off only if you leave stuff blank. For SP22, a blank = -4 points.

If I think you are wrong, I sometimes mark it “wrong”, but unless “very-wrong, do not take off points.

As time permits, I may comment why I thought you were wrong and how I would have answered it.

As time permits, I will grade your work and send it back to you with the grading.

Until I grade it, your grade will be the full 200 points.

PROF SOPER SAYS very few things have only one correct answer. So ……. Your CHALLENGE is NOT to give me the correct answer, but to give me an answer you are willing to defend, if I call it incorrect. Yes …… I just said I expect and want you to DISAGREE with me. If you challenge me, almost always I’ll give some points back, even if I still do not agree with your answer.

LO 2.1:

Everything that has atoms in it, is a chemical. Chemicals can be considered GOOD or BAD for you, … and are part of all LIVING and NON-LIVING things. These collection of atoms create SIMPLE or COMPLEX STRUCTURES.


LO 2.2:

Understand that you are what you eat …. And some strange chemicals are required for you, …. and other life ….. to live health lives. As examples, the metals: Copper and Zinc

Copper: Copper is a cofactor for several important enzymes that are important for metabolism and the synthesis of important molecules.

Zinc: Zinc is important for the proper function of almost 100 enzymes in the body. These enzymes have many uses, but some include creating the structure of DNA, healing damaged tissues, and proper function of the immune system.

……. If you are reading this, I say that it is okay to use Copper and Zinc in the questions directly below here.

List 5 Good Chemicals and explain how they are good.

First Good Chemical: ___ ___ Explain how it is good. ___ ___

Second Good Chemical: ___ ___ Explain how it is good. ___ ___

Third Good Chemical: ___ ___ Explain how it is good. ___ ___

Fourth Good Chemical: ___ ___ Explain how it is good. ___ ___

Fifth Good Chemical: ___ ___ Explain how it is good. ___ ___

List 5 Bad Chemicals and explain how they are good.

First Bad Chemical: ___ ___ Explain how it is bad. ___ ___

Second Bad Chemical: ___ ___ Explain how it is bad. ___ ___

Third Bad Chemical: ___ ___ Explain how it is bad. ___ ___

Fourth Bad Chemical: ___ ___ Explain how it is bad. ___ ___

Fifth Bad Chemical: ___ ___ Explain how it is bad.. ___ ___

LO 2.3:

Humans and Nature help chemicals flow from one part of Earth to affect other parts, thousands of miles away.

Give 3 different examples of how Humans and Nature help transport chemicals.

First Example: ___ ___

Second Example: ___ ___

Third Example: ___ ___

LO 2.4:

What are the differences between MATTER, ELEMENTS, ATOMS, and COMPOUNDS/MOLECULES?

Chapter: Some Basic Chemistry

1. Match the following terms with their correct definitions: matter, atom, molecule, element, and compound.

A) The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of their specific type of matter: ___ ____

B) A substance that cannot be broken into a simpler substance: ___ atom____ But Prof Soper disagrees. Ask him why? ___ ____

C) Substances with two or more atoms in a fixed ratio: ___ ____

D) Atoms that are bonded to one another covalently: ___ ____

VOCAB: ELEMENT: What would it mean for you to say that you had one gram of one pure ELEMENT? ___ ____ Is that even possible? ___ ____Why? ___ ____

VOCAB: ELEMENT: What is your favorite element or compound/molecule found in a human body? ___ carbon, water, calcium, iodine, iron, potassium ____ Why? ___ ____

3. List Here are the elements make up the majority of a human body. List 3 that interest you. For each, explain why?

FIRST ___ ____ Why? ___ ____ SECOND ___ ____ Why? ___ ____ THIRD ___ ____ Why? ___ ____

DiagramDescription automatically generated

4. Is H2O an element? NO IT IS NOT. If not, Explain your answer. ___ ____

5. Neapolitan ice cream is vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry combined in a 1:1:1 ratio. Briefly explain how Neapolitan ice cream is a good analogy that helps students understand the relationship between compounds and elements. ___ ____

6. An atom comprises what three subatomic particles?

A) ___ ____

B) ___ ____

C) ___ ____

6a. Can these sub-atomic particles be broken down into smaller particles? Prof Soper says that for Protons and Neutrons, the answer is YES. What are the Protons broken up into? ___ ____ What are the Neutrons broken up into? ___ ____

7. Match the following terms to the proper characteristic: nucleus, proton, electron, neutron, and subatomic particles. Some terms may be used more than once and some characteristics may use multiple terms.

A) Has almost no mass compared to Protons and Neutrons: ___ ____

B) Found in the nucleus: ___ ____

C) Center of an atom: ___ ____

D) In constant motion: ___ ____

E) Protons, electrons, and neutrons: ___ ____

8. Which of the following describes atoms of an element that vary in the number of neutrons? ___ ____

A) Electrons

B) Isotopes

C) Atomic number

D) Protons

VOCAB: COMPOUND OR MOLECULE: Is having one gram of a pure COMPOUND OR MOLECULE possible? ___ ____ Why? ___ ____

VOCAB: MATTER: What’s the MATTER???. Meaning … explain to me why a substance would be said to have MATTER? What 2 properties does all MATTER have? First Property: ___ ____ Second Property: ___ ____

VOCAB: MATTER: Can you do something to a bit of MATTER so that it disappears completely? Meaning, is MATTER conserved? ___ ____

LO 2.5:

Explain the relationship of MATTER versus ENERGY and the CONSERVATION of both.

VOCAB: ENERGY: What is ENERGY? ___ ____Give me two examples. Example No. 1: ___ ____ Example No. 2: ___ ____

VOCAB: ENERGY: Can you do something to a bit of ENERGY so that it disappears completely? Meaning, is ENERGY conserved? ___ ____

VOCAB: ENERGY and MATTER: Prof Soper says that neither ENERGY nor MATTER is conserved. But ENERGY + MATTER IS. What does he mean? Ask him. See Below. Summarize what I have written below here in about 50 of your own words. ___ ____

Here’s my answer to “Ask him”: .

In your experience as you go through life, you will almost never experience what I am about to discuss. In that life, for all practical purposes, ENERGY, separately is CONSERVED, and MATTER, separately is CONSERVED……..BUT IN REAL LIFE, only ENERGY is CONSERVED. MATTER is not CONSERVED. ………. BUT in a very special case, using a very big assumption, neither is ENERGY conserved.…….. See assumption directly below here:

ASSUME A MULTIVERSE: ………….. Assume our Universe is one of many, ……….. meaning we exist in not one universe, but “Many”. Normally, one Universe is not connected to another, except ….. when it is ……. And at that point, matter and energy can pass from one Universe to another Universe …… We already know that MASS is not CONSERVED, but in this special case, neither is ENERGY CONSERVED. Theoretically many scientists think this can happen, but I am not aware of any experimental proof …….. yet.

BUT WAIT……. HOW IS ENERGY CONNECTED TO MATTER? Perhaps it is hard to imagine, but if you have a stone at rest with no apparent energy (mass at rest), it has a certain mass. If you then give this stone, kinetic energy by having gravity to drop it if you let go of it, the mass of this stone, because it has been moved, actually GAINS mass.

BUT WAIT,…… IS MASS REALLY NOT CONSERVED?: ACTUALLY, MASS IS NOT CONSERVED, but its hard to understand why.……… but I will try ………. What is conserved is what you could think as ENERGY + MASS together …….. meaning you have a MASS that is moving. You likely know that if you are hit with a “fluffy” light snowball, it does not hurt much because that snowball had minimal mass. But change it to a heavy wet snow ….. ball, hitting you at the same speed as the light snowball, you could get seriously hurt. That’s because of the inertia the mass has during movement. The combination of these two terms (inertia and mass) is what we call MOMENTUM. And MOMENTUM is conserved ……. Remember above …… MASS given ENERGY, gains some MASS.


Lighter Fuel Rods: In a standard nuclear reactor, the Uranium fuel comes in the forms of long RODS. If you get the mass of these RODS before they are put into the reactor, then compare the mass after the Fuel Rods are replaced, the replaced rods have less mass. Where did that go? It was converted into energy in the form of radioactivity and heat.

The Sun Gets Lighter as it Ages: Where does our Sun get its energy from? It’s from MATTER converting into ENERGY in the center of the Sun.

A Hydrogen Bomb, after Detonation, would be much Lighter: Of course, this is theoretical, because there is not much, if any mass of a HYDROGEN BOMB after detonation. But the tremendous energy released, is from that MASS being converted into ENERGY.

CAN ENERGY TURN INTO MATTER?: As I understand it, yes. Look at the LHC ….. the Large Hadron Collider at CERN …… I have trouble understanding this, so I am not going to try to explain it, but we have experimental evidence that energy can turn into mass. You can see this, in part, because at the LHC, they do not talk about the mass of a particle they are colliding, they “measure” it as a certain amount of ELECTRON VOLTS.

THE BASIS OF ALL THIS?: Einstein’s famous Equation E = mc2.

WHAT ABOUT MASS INTO ENERGY?: With E = Energy, m = mass, and c = the speed of light. Let’s look further into the ramifications of this. Since the speed of light is a very big number ….. just about 300,000 meters/second, ……… then that number is squared …….. to 9 x 1010 meters2/second2, …….. a very small amount of mass will create a very large amount of energy ……… To historically visualize this within your experience, refer to the utter destruction of Nagasaki and Hiroshima Japan after the atomic bomb drop.

WHAT ABOUT ENERGY INTO MASS?: Just like any mathematical equation, you can solve for the other variables ….. say “m” for mass ……… Then, m = E/c2. Are there any natural and artificial examples of this happening? …… Not that I know of …yet…. But ……… I do know that there is an experiment being designed where numerous large lasers are focused on a single point …… meaning an enormous amount energy concentrates at that point …… and the theoretical result is expected to be (meaning we are hypothesizing) the making of electron from light energy.

Research for above: This is pretty dense. Watch about the last 60 seconds.

LO 2.6:

What are ATOMS and how is the STRUCTURE of ATOMS important? ….. THE POWER OF ELECTRONS,204,203,200_.jpg

A picture containing chartDescription automatically generatedA picture containing chartDescription automatically generated

LO 2.7:


The Key to understanding Chemistry is understanding about stability of atoms, ions, molecules, and compounds.

2. In what “TABLE” can you find all of the elements listed by their atomic number? ___ ____

VOCAB: ATOM: Ask Professor Soper in Lecture to explain why almost all drawings of atoms in textbooks are incorrect. He’ll tell you the REAL story about what ATOMS are, and explains why and how ALL CHEMICAL REACTIONS occur. …….. Actually, I will tell what my response is ……..: See Below for Prof Sopers Story. Summarize in about 50 of your own words. ___ ____

Prof Soper’s Story:

Atoms are made of two basic parts:

The nucleus, which contains the protons, and if present, the neutrons. The nucleus contains nearly all the mass of the atom………

And the …….. electrons, which actually act very strangely. They are within a cloud, very far, away from the nucleus …… so far ….. that if you were to get the diameter of the nucleus, electrons would normally be 5000 to 10,000 times that nucleus diameter, away from the nucleus. This fact is the key to understanding nearly all chemical reactions.

Chemical Reactions: Play a mind – game:

You need at least 2 atoms. …….

Play a mind – game. Think video game, but much better …….

Imagine a small pencil mark on a piece of paper …….. That’s the nucleus. Its electrons are somewhere quite far away from the nucleus. (see above comment) ………

Imagine a sphere that encloses the electrons …… and nucleus …….. We call these spheres, ELECTRON CLOUDS.

Imagine another atom coming near ……. What parts of the two atoms would interact first ……. The tiny nucleus in about the center?….. or the electron clouds? ……… THE ELECTRON CLOUDS, OF COURSE.

…… And thus is a very key fact about chemical reactions between atoms and molecules …….. It’s the tiny, and nearly weightless ELECTRONS, that control the Chemical Reactions…….. not the far heavier and bigger Protons and Neutrons in the nucleus.


Are two Sodium atoms joined as a Na2 molecule possible? Picture 5 No, it is too unstable. The placement of electrons around the nuclei of 2 Sodium atoms do not allow it. Each have an extra electron, which makes it highly reactive. Instead of each atom of sodium joining together, it actually forms large bunches of atoms with the electrons, free to flow. Another words, it acts like a metal, which it is. But pure sodium atoms are very dangerous. It’s reaction with even a small bit of water is explosive.


How about two chlorine atoms as Cl2? Yes, it looks like this. A picture containing text, vector graphicsDescription automatically generated It can form because the 7 electrons around the nucleus of each Cl atom can share electrons to form a stable molecule. But even though two chlorine atoms joined together are stable alone, a bunch of Cl2 molecules are extremely dangerous. It forms a gas at room temperature and is heavier than air. If released from a bomb/missile, unfortunately, it can kill humans.


One more: How about a molecule made of one Sodium atom and one Chlorine atom? Two dangerous elements mixed together? You would get ……… A picture containing text, clipartDescription automatically generated which is very stable. Sodium has an extra electron ….. and ……. Chlorine needs one. The electron from Na passes to Cl ……. And the resultant molecule is very SAFE. So safe, that we can/and need to, eat it. ………. NaCl is TABLE SALT. …….



So, what changed? Not much at all. All that was needed was that one electron that an atom of Sodium wanted to get rid of, was “given” to an atom of Chlorine that wanted one more electron. The transfer of just one electron!




LO 2.8:

How and Why is Liquid Water, essential to Life as we know it?


LO 2.9:

Explain the role of Carbon in creating Organic Molecules


LO 2.10:

What are Acids and Bases and how do they relate to the pH of a substance?.


9. True or false: A radioactive isotope is unstable, which means it gives off energy and particles. If false, make it a correct statement. ___ ____

10. According to the following figure, which treatment led to the highest percentage of patients whose cancer did not progress? BIG NOTE: For some reason, some students get this incorrect …….. That was because when they Googled the question …… to get the answer …….. their source ………. Had the WRONG ANSWER. Do not let that happen to you. ___ ____

Picture 2

11. An attractive force that holds two atoms together is generically referred to as a(n) ___ ____

A) Molecule

B) Chemical bond

C) Electron cloud

D) Compound

12. Complete the diagram illustrating ionic bonds. Atom X gives 1 electron to each atom Y. What are the ions that form as a result? Put the charges for each atom here ……. For example, -1 or -2 or +1 or +2 or 0.

Charge for Atom X ___ ____ Charge for Atom Y ___ ____ Charge for Atom Z ___ ____


The Atoms in the figure below are labelled incorrectly.

The second Atom Y is actually Atom Z

Picture 4

13. ___ ____ are transformations of matter that result in new substances being made by breaking existing chemical bonds, rearranging the atoms into new substances, and forming new chemical bonds.

14. In the following chemical equation, identify the products and reactants and indicate whether or not the equation is balanced. If not, balance the chemical equation.

2CO2 + 3H2O → C6H12O6 + 5O2___ ____ If you have trouble with this one, ask Professor Soper. This means if you get it seriously wrong, because you did not ask for help, ……. For this one ……. I will take points off.

Stopped here on Tuesday 8 June 21

VOCAB: CHEMICAL REACTION: How/why does a CHEMICAL REACTION OCCUR? How:? ___ ____ Why? ___ ____

VOCAB: CHEMICAL REACTION: What is your most favorite CHEMICAL REACTION of all time? ___ ____ What is Professor Soper’s? Ask him. ___ NaCl ____

VOCAB: ION: What’s an ION? ___ ____ And What does it have to do with Professor Soper’s most favorite CHEMICAL REACTION? ___ ____

15. You add a negatively charged substance to the water molecules shown in Figure 2.8 on page 28 of your textbook. How would you predict that the negatively charged substance would orient itself around the water molecules? ___ ____

Picture 6



Chapter Content: Water and Life

Complete the following questions as you read the second chapter content—Water and Life:

1. Which of the following is a unique property of water?

A) Cohesion: Why or Why Not? ___ ____

B) Ice floats: Why or Why Not? ___ ____

C) Temperature regulation: Why or Why Not? ___ ____

D) Water is a crucial solvent: Why or Why Not? ___ ____

E) All of the above are properties of water.

2. Oils are nonpolar substances (molecules formed by nonpolar covalent bonds) that do not interact with water. Propose an explanation for why oils are not attracted to water, whereas a substance like NaCl (table salt) is attracted to H2O. When answering this question, ask yourself the following: Is the compound of NaCl charged? ___ ____

3. ___ ____ is when a substance evaporates and the surface of the remaining liquid cools down.

4. Complete the following table regarding acids and bases. Change how I explain this in the Q.



Effect on H+ when dissolved in H2O

___ pH will decrease ____

___ pH will increase ____

pH range

___ 0 to 7 ____

___ 7 to 14 ____


___ vinegar ____

___ soap ____

5. As the pH increases the [H+] ___ ____, and as the pH decreases the [H+] ___ ____ .

A) Decreases; increases

B) Increases; decreases

C) Increases; stays the same

D) Decreases; stays the same

VOCAB: POLAR/POLARITY: What does it mean that a MOLECULE of WATER is POLAR? ___ ____ What is the effect of this POLARITY? – WARNING: Bottomless Question. ___ ____

VOCAB: HYDROGEN BONDS: What are Hydrogen Bonds, ___ ____ and how do they work related to water’s polarity? ___ ____

Properties of WATER: Below Here, Give one example of each, explaining why this example explains the need of WATER for life:

VOCAB: COHESION: PROPERTIES OF WATER: Give 1 example, explaining why this example explains the need of WATER for Life: ___ ____

VOCAB: ADHESION: PROPERTIES OF WATER: Give 1 example, explaining why this example explains the need of WATER for Life___ ____

VOCAB: EVAPORATIVE COOLING: PROPERTIES OF WATER: Give 1 example, explaining why this example explains the need of WATER for Life ___ ____

VOCAB: WATER AS A SOLID: PROPERTIES OF WATER: Give 1 example, explaining why this example explains the need of WATER for Life ___ ____

VOCAB: HIGH HEAT CAPACITY: PROPERTIES OF WATER: Give 1 example, explaining why this example explains the need of WATER for Life ___ ____

VOCAB: UNIVERSAL SOLVENT: PROPERTIES OF WATER: Give 1 example, explaining why this example explains the need of WATER for Life ___ ____ Instructions

6. “YOUR BODY IS IN DANGER OF DYING”. The pH in your cells is decreasing. Cells have buffers to minimize changes in pH. Briefly explain what the buffer would do in this situation with respect to the H+ concentration in your cells. ___ ____

7. Use Figure 2.15 on page 32 of your textbook to answer the following question. What is the difference in [H+] between urine and lemon juice? ___ ____ BUT PROFESSOR SOPER SAYS that [H+] does not actually exist for any meaningful length of time. [H+] is actually [H3O+]

Picture 3

8. How long does it take for approximately 75% of carbon-14 to decay into carbon-12 (in thousands of years)? ___ ____

Picture 8

Major Theme Connection:

1. Using radioactive isotopes to determine the age of a fossil is known as radiometric dating. How might radiometric dating provide support for the theory of evolution by natural selection? Hint—Consider the age of fossils with respect to the overall fossil record (the entire collection of data regarding fossils and the age of Earth). ___ ____

Common Thread Connection:

1. “Navy coffee” is where the coffee is brewed strong and a bit of salt is added. What is special about water that allows you to put sugar or salt in your coffee? ___ ____ To help answer this question, consider the opposite situation: Why do salt scrubs that you buy in a high-end spa consist of large salt crystals in oil? ___ ____

-For this Chapter-


275/200 = 137.5%

Big Note: There are 25 deep dives below. At an average of 3 points each, a TOTAL of these all would be 75 additional points.

Deep Dives (DD’s) for Chapter 2:


See my list in the Deep Dive Rules in the ALTA for Chapter 1

DD 2.1: What do the letters “p” and “H” stand for in pH? ___ ____

DD 2.2: Oxygen and Hydrogen are gasses at room temperature when they are not chemically bonded to each other, but these two elements make up more than 70% of our body’s mass. ….. Is Professor Soper saying you contain lots of gas? …… Reasons for burps and farts? ………. Perhaps you do, but that’s not what I mean ……. Then, what common substance is made up of only oxygen and hydrogen atoms? ___ ____

DD 2.3: Who was the poor person that was subdivided into all the constituent elements to make up the data on page 24 of your text? ……. Was it a particular person? ……. YUCK!! ……. But if not from a particular person that was taken apart and ………, how were these values established? PLEASE NOTE: I do not know the answer. So if you find out for me, it may be worth much more than 3 points. ___ ____

DD 2.4 : Is Professor Soper saying that one element turns into a different element? ……. Yes I am ………. Explain and give examples. ……. ___ ____

DD 2.5: Do it and find out. …… So …….. can Pb be turned into Au? Of course, you would need to explain why or why not. ___ ____

DD 2.6: Some scientists have posited that life even requires that Pb be present. Many others say that no amount of Pb is safe. What’s Pb? How does it affect life, at least in “larger” amounts? …… and some info please about that “posit”. NOTE: PROFESSOR SOPER is not convinced that Pb is required for life….. but perhaps I am incorrect. ___ ____

DD 2.7: Is it possible for an atom to have no electrons and still be that element? ___ ____ Explain. ___ ____

DD 2.8: Can an electron be in the nucleus? ___ ____ Explain. ___ ____

DD2.9: PROFESSOR SOPER SAYS that all of the atomic masses given in a standard periodic table (including ones used by BHCC) are incorrect. Explain why. …………. Look at your lecture notes. ___ ____

DD 2.10: You cannot store radioactive isotopes typically used in medicine for very long. Explain why. ___ ____

DD 2.11: Does the United States as a nation control (meaning they have reliable supplies) of all of the typical radioactive isotopes used in medicine? Explain. ___ ____

DD 2.12: Explain with two examples, how ions are important for the human body. Example No. 1 ___ ____ Example No. 2 ___ ____

DD2.13: Look at your lecture notes. Explain in detail why Professor Soper thinks the compound NaCl is “Beautiful” and the “POWER OF CHEMISTRY”. ___ ____

DD2.15: SO …. how do chemists define if a molecule is polar if it only has “some” polar covalent bonds? Note that PROFESSOR SOPER does not know this answer. ___ ____

DD 2.16: The structure and replication of DNA has something to do with hydrogen bonding. Explain. ___ ____

DD 2.17: If “A” and “B” and “C” are different substances, can the chemical equation A + B <<<>>> C exist? ___ ____Another words, … as some of A and B are becoming C, is C becoming A and B …….. Still another way of saying it …… Can the direction of the chemical reaction simultaneously occur in both directions? ___ ____

DD 2.18: When the amounts are equal going both ways, what is that called? ___ ____

DD 2.19: This concept in the DD above, can put entire industries either out of business or be able to do much better than its competitors by making more money. HINT: It has something to do with how much is left over. Explain. ___ ____

DD 2.20: What about the remaining 1.2% of elements in the human body ……. Are they important? ___ ____

Example No. 1. ___ ____ Example No. 2. ___ _____

DD 2.21: That leaves only 1.2% left. Think of the everyday items you use in life and that you eat? Which are Acids, which are Bases, and which are Neutral? Give 5 examples of each.

Acid Examples

No. 1 ___ ____

No. 2 ___ ____

No. 3 ___ ____

No. 4 ___ ____

No. 5 ___ ____

Base (Alkaline) Examples

No. 1 ___ ____

No. 2 ___ ____

No. 3 ___ ____

No. 4 ___ ____

No. 5 ___ ____

Neutral Examples

No. 1 ___ ____

No. 2 ___ ____

No. 3 ___ ____

No. 4 ___ ____

No. 5 ___ ____

DD 2.22: Neutrinos: Some consider this matter. It is a particle so it takes up space, but it is hard to catch in order to get its mass. Some think it is massless. Did I just give you an “unlabeled” DD? Yes. If interested, look it up. ___ ____

DD 2.23: Can you gather some energy and hold it in your hand? Why/Why not? ___ ____

DD 2.24: Is Light, a form of matter? Why or Why not? Is Light a form of energy? Why or why not? ___ ____

DD 2.25: For each of the properties of Water that is related to Life, explain what water’s polarity molecule allows this property to occur. Look for these water properties in Figure 1.11 of your text.

Water Property No. 1: ___ ____ Polarity of the molecule allows this property to occur because….. Explain: ___ ____

Water Property No. 2: ___ ____ Polarity of the molecule allows this property to occur because….. Explain: ___ ____

Water Property No. 3: ___ ____ Polarity of the molecule allows this property to occur because….. Explain: ___ ____

Water Property No. 4: ___ ____ Polarity of the molecule allows this property to occur because….. Explain: ___ ____

Water Property No. 5: ___ ____ Polarity of the molecule allows this property to occur because….. Explain: ___ ____

Water Property No. 6: ___ ____ Polarity of the molecule allows this property to occur because….. Explain: ___ ____

Water Property No. 7: ___ ____ Polarity of the molecule allows this property to occur because….. Explain: ___ ____

Water Property No. 8: ___ ____ Polarity of the molecule allows this property to occur because….. Explain: ___ ____


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Nоte, оnce lоgged іntо yоur accоunt; yоu can clіck оn the “Pendіng” buttоn at the left sіdebar tо navіgate, make changes, make payments, add іnstructіоns оr uplоad fіles fоr the оrder created. e.g., оnce lоgged іn, clіck оn “Pendіng” and a “pay” оptіоn wіll appear оn the far rіght оf the оrder yоu created, clіck оn pay then clіck оn the “Checkоut” оptіоn at the next page that appears, and yоu wіll be able tо cоmplete the payment.

Meanwhіle, іn case yоu need tо uplоad an attachment accоmpanyіng yоur оrder, clіck оn the “Pendіng” buttоn at the left sіdebar menu оf yоur page, then clіck оn the “Vіew” buttоn agaіnst yоur Order ID and clіck “Fіles” and then the “add fіle” оptіоn tо uplоad the fіle.

Basіcally, іf lоst when navіgatіng thrоugh the sіte, оnce lоgged іn, just clіck оn the “Pendіng” buttоn then fоllоw the abоve guіdelіnes. оtherwіse, cоntact suppоrt thrоugh оur chat at the bоttоm rіght cоrner


Payment Prоcess

By clіckіng ‘PRОCEED TО CHECKОUT’ yоu wіll be lоgged іn tо yоur accоunt autоmatіcally where yоu can vіew yоur оrder detaіls. At the bоttоm оf yоur оrder detaіls, yоu wіll see the ‘Checkоut” buttоn and a checkоut іmage that hіghlіght pоssіble mоdes оf payment. Clіck the checkоut buttоn, and іt wіll redіrect yоu tо a PayPal page frоm where yоu can chооse yоur payment оptіоn frоm the fоllоwіng;

  1. Pay wіth my PayPal accоunt‘– select thіs оptіоn іf yоu have a PayPal accоunt.
  2. Pay wіth a debіt оr credіt card’ or ‘Guest Checkout’ – select thіs оptіоn tо pay usіng yоur debіt оr credіt card іf yоu dоn’t have a PayPal accоunt.
  3. Dо nоt fоrget tо make payment sо that the оrder can be vіsіble tо оur experts/tutоrs/wrіters.


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