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CoralReefs.pptx

CoralReefs.pptx

The Endangered Earth

Coral Reefs

Case Study: Coral Reefs

Major endangered reef regions

Only 2.6% protected

33% of reef species endangered

2

Coral Reefs

Small unique areas rich with marine life

Highly vulnerable to extinction

World’s most endangered ecosystems

Coral Reefs: Global Distribution

https://www.slideshare.net/notesmaster/coral-reefs-theory-types-formation

Click link below to learn more about coral reefs:

Coral Reefs: Global Distribution

Coral Reefs: Importance

Coral reefs support the livelihoods of millions of people.

Coral reefs supply seafood, building materials, sources for medicinal products, and draw in much needed tourism revenue.

Reefs also protect shorelines and communities from storms and erosion.

http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html#1

Coral Reefs: Importance

Coral reefs are an important source of food for hundreds of millions of people, many of whom have no other source of animal protein.

However especially reefs in developing countries are threatened and if human impact on reefs is not reduced there is a great danger, that some of the world’s poorest people will lose an important source of nutrition, and in many cases their livelihoods.

http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html#1

Coral Reefs: Importance

Despite their extraordinary value, coral reefs are deeply threatened by human activities and global climate change.

Coral Reefs: Threats

http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html#1

Coral Reefs: Threats

http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html#1

Coral Reefs: Threats

http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html#1

Coral Reefs: Threats

Coral Reefs: Threatened

Nations most socially and economically vulnerable to coral reef degradation

Haiti, Grenada, the Philippines, Comoros, Vanuatu, Tanzania, Kiribati, Fiji, and Indonesia.

28% of global reef systems

Reefs provide food, tourism, and coastal protection

Threatened by unsustainable fishing, population stresses, and global warming

Governments do not have capacity to protect them

Coral Reefs: Case StudyMost Endangered Coral Region on Earth

Coral Reefs: Coral Triangle Region

Coral Triangle

600 different species of coral

3000 different species of fish (37% of world’s reef fish, 8% endemic)

Home to 6 of the 7 marine turtle species

and 22 species of marine mammals

120 million people live in the region and rely on the reef resources, income, and protection

Coral Triangle: Economics

The total annual economical value of natural habitats in the Coral Triangle including coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds is an estimated US $2.3 billion

The commercial fishing industry of the Coral Triangle generates US $3 billion in income annually and supports millions of people in many costal villages.

http://www.coralscience.org/main/articles/climate-a-ecology-16/the-coral-triangle

Coral Triangle: Economics

Coral reefs, mangroves and seagrass beds are crucial breeding grounds for many marine creatures, including several commercially important species such as yellowfin tuna, bigeye tuna, skipjack tuna, Napoleon wrasse, and bumphead parrotfish.

Without these nurseries for large pelagic fish species, there would be nowhere for adults to spawn or for the fry and juveniles to grow and eventually reproduce, making the continued existence of these species impossible.

http://www.coralscience.org/main/articles/climate-a-ecology-16/the-coral-triangle

Coral Triangle

Fish density declining 6% annually

Endangered species:

All marine sea turtles

Green sea turtle

Loggerhead

Hawksbill

Olive Ridley

Leatherback

Flatback

Dugong

Humphead wrasse

Coral Triangle: Threats

Pollution

Deforestation

Overfishing

50% taken before able to reproduce

79% spawning aggregations stopped forming or are in decline

Destructive fishing

Cyanide Poisoning

Dynamite fishing

Blasts destroy 200 sq. feet at a time

Coral Triangle: Threats

Bycatch

Million pounds of non-target species entangled in gillnets, trawls, and longlines each year

Devastating to species, especially endangered marine turtles, sharks, and juvenile fish

Climate Change

Rising sea levels

Warming

Bleaching

Acidification

Coral Reefs: Geography’s Role

Coral reef mapping

Monitoring reef health

Reef and marine ecosystem classification

Estimate reef area coverage

Change detection

Water quality

Shoreline erosion/accretion responsible for reef degradation

Limited coral reef management

Coastal zone management

Marine protected areas

Fishing zones

Coral Reefs: Geography’s Role

Coral Reefs: Geography’s Role

MONITORING CORAL REEFS AND SEA GRASS BEDS

Coral Reefs: Geography’s Role

MONITORING CORAL REEFS AND SEA GRASS BEDS

Coral Reefs: Geography’s Role

MONITORING CORAL REEFS AND SEA GRASS BEDS

Coral Geographic is one of the projects now underway at Coral reef Research which will culminate almost all that is known about the biogeography of reef building stony corals.

Coral Triangle: Solutions

Marine protected areas can include several zones— “no-take”, sustainable use, research—which provide opportunities for both conservation and sustainable exploitation.

But there are still too few marine protected areas in the region. And even where they exist, often they are not effectively managed. This severely limits the ability of MPAs to replenish fish populations.

What we need are well-designed and well-managed networks of marine protected areas and locally managed marine areas. This is the key to preventing further biodiversity loss and fisheries collapse.

How/where do we design these marine protected areas?

http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/coraltriangle/solutions/marine_protected_areas/

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Coral Triangle: Solutions

Sustainable fishing

International laws and standards support sustainable fisheries management, and are applicable to tuna regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) and their member states. But in reality, tuna RFMOs have been unable to prevent overexploitation of tuna, rebuild depleted stocks, or protect the wider ecosystem.

How do we address the problem of unsustainable fishing?

http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/coraltriangle/solutions/sustainable_tuna_fisheries_coraltriangle/

Coral Triangle: Solutions

In the Coral Triangle, the impacts of bycatch have been devastating. Populations of nesting marine turtles have declined by as much as 90% in some areas

Overfishing of sharks in longline fisheries targeting tuna has endangered many species and in shrimp fisheries, juvenile ‘trash fish’ can outweigh the catch of targeted shrimp by more than 10 to 1

Fishing gear—longlines, gillnets, and trawl nets, not selective

How do we implement and enforce the use of better, safer technologies for fishing?

http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/coraltriangle/solutions/tackling_fisheries_bycatch/

Coral Triangle: Status

40% of coral reefs and mangroves destroyed in the last 40 years

Only 1% of protected areas effective in stopping coral degradation

Coral Triangle will disappear at a rate of 1-2% every year

In 40 years, the Coral Triangle may collapse and vanish

Easy Ways You Can Protect Coral Reefs

Conserve water and energy

Reduce Pollution

Buy renewable or biodegradable products instead of plastics

Support reef-friendly businesses

Wear a swim shirt for sun protection or natural sunscreens

Do not step on or harm coral

Volunteer for ocean and rivers clean-ups!

Caribbean Reseeding Project

Conservation Infogram:The Coral Triangle

How/where do we design these marine protected areas?

How do we address the problem of unsustainable fishing?

How do we implement and enforce the use of better, safer technologies for fishing?

Pick one of the three questions and create an Infogram highlighting the potential solutions to the problems.

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