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Coates_PPT08.pptx

Coates_PPT08.pptx

Power, Politics, and Identities

Chapter 8

LO 8-1 Explain contemporary political identities

LO 8-2 Evaluate stock sociological theories regarding power, politics, and identity

LO 8-3 apply the matrix approach to U.S. political history

LO 8-4 formulate alternatives to the matrix of race and politics

2

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Contemporary Political Identities

Politics – All of the processes, activities, and institutions having to do with governance

Political identities – Political positions, based on the interests and perspectives of social groups

Represent race, gender, sexuality, language, region, and class

3

The results of political elections are dependent on how well candidates can navigate political identities

3

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Regional Differences

Political identities vary by region in the United States

Among all groups, those living in the South or the Northeast, there is a stronger likelihood that they will view reality through the lens of race

People living in the West are more likely to view class as central to their identity

4

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Political Disenfranchisement

Disenfranchisement – Revocation of the right to vote

Differs regionally

People with criminal records are disenfranchised

Hispanics and African Americans are more likely to be disenfranchised

5

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

The Role of Race, Class, and Gender

The highest levels of non-voters are associated with the lowest levels of education and income

Being eligible to vote and actually voting are two separate things

Women, across all racial groups, are more likely to vote than men

In the last two presidential elections, black women have been the most likely to vote

6

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Analyzing the 2016 Presidential Election

Voting patterns associated with education were evident in the presidential election of 2016

52% of people with college degrees voted for Clinton

52% of people without college degrees voted for Trump

Trump obtained 67% of non-college white’s vote

7

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Analyzing the 2016 Presidential Election

Voting patterns associated with race were also evident in the presidential election of 2016

Trump captured 58% of the White, non-Hispanic vote

Clinton secured 80% of Black voters

8

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Political Sociology

Political sociology – Study of government, political behaviors, institutions and processes that occur between the state, society and its citizens

The study of power, politics, and identity

9

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

The Pluralist Approach

Pluralism – Posits that power within society is decentralized, widely shared, diffuse and fragmented

Because no single group is dominant, democratic equilibrium is established

Two types of groups associated with the pluralistic model

Insider groups

Outsider groups

10

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

The Pluralist Approach

Pluralistic approach presumes that power is dispersed equally among insiders

In reality, power tends to be coalesced among a very few

11

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Power Elite Model

The Power Elite model – Suggests that power is concentrated among elites who control the resources of significant institutions

Three realms with elite members

High ranking politicians

Heads of major corporations and directors

High ranking military personnel

12

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

The Class Approach to Power

The class approach model to power assumes that the type of economic system a society has determines the kind of political structures that evolve

In the United States those who control the economic production control the political processes

13

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Critical Race Theory

Critical race theory aims to transform the relationship between race, racism, and power

Theme #1: reject, significantly challenge or re-interpret the stock socio-political theories

Theme #2: mainstream ideas, reflected disproportionately by white scholars, stress the importance of linking structural conditions to the self-interests of leaders, activists, or even regions to understand ethnic identity and the conflict that often occurs

Theme #3: the political realities that reaffirm racial hierarchies are normal

14

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Critical Race Theory

Critical race theorist Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw (1993) coined the term “intersectionality”

Identity politics – A political process or structure that relies upon people of specific religions, racial and ethnic groups, or social backgrounds to form exclusive political alliances

15

Intersectionality:

Explained that the experiences that people face represent intersecting and interacting spheres that shape structural and representational aspects of our being

Argued that political processes were best understood through this lens

15

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Applying the Matrix of Race to U.S. Political History

The original intent of the U.S. government was to diminish the conflict between the “haves and have-nots” (Madison 1788)

Power – The ability to acquire scarce resources

The political institution regulates power

16

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Building a Nation’s Identity

Previous to the Civil War the southern colonies of Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia were staunch supporters of slavery

Economies relied on slave labor for profitability

Ultimately, the northern elites determined that free labor was more productive than slave labor

Our current Senate and House of Representatives are a direct result of how to count slaves within the population

17

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Building a Nation’s Identity

Great Compromise of 1787

Determined that slaves counted as three-fifths of a person when determining state representatives, as well as presidential electors and taxes

18

– Also included two governing bodies, wherein population would determine how many seats each state would hold in the House of Representatives, and the Senate would have two from each state

18

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Building a Nation’s Identity

Citizenship – Reflects the legal process countries use to regulate national identity, membership and rights

1790 Naturalization Act – Granted citizenship to “free white aliens” with two years’ residence

Withheld from all non-whites, slaves, and women

19

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Sovereign Peoples

Native Americans considered sovereign nationals

Independent and held authority over their own citizens and remaining land

Did not pay taxes to the United States and did not vote

Native Americans did not become citizens of the United States until 1924

20

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Immigration

U.S. immigration policies were intentional regarding race

1921 Emergency Quota Act – Limited the numbers of immigrants to the United States by imposing quotas based on the country of birth

1965 Immigration and Nationality Act – Committed the United States to accepting immigrants of all nationalities on roughly equal terms

21

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Civil War and Its Aftermath

De jure – Political practices and processes that were enacted as formal laws

De facto – Political practices and processes that, although not enshrined into laws, were carried out in practice by various entities

22

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Post Civil War De Jure Laws

Poll taxes – Two-year tax that had to be paid in advance in order to register to vote

Literacy tests – Required a person seeking to vote to read and interpret a section of the state constitution to county court

Grandfather clauses – Permitted anyone whose grandfather was qualified to vote prior to the Civil War

23

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Post Civil War De Facto Practices

In 1917 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that segregation laws were unconstitutional

However, de facto practices reinforced segregation

Restrictive covenants – Bared the resale to purchasers of a race different than the original homeowner

Redlining – Happens when mortgage lending for certain areas is influenced/determined by race

24

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

The Rise of Coalitional Politics and Social Movements

Coalitional politics – Represents political alliances of various identity groups whose purpose is to establish a specific political agenda

25

Example: Black Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968)

Utilized a series of well-orchestrated nonviolent protests and civil disobedience to force dialogues between activists and political institutions

25

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Social Movement Victories

1964 Civil Rights Act – Officially banned discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin in employment practices

1965 Voters Rights Act – Ended voting discrimination and extended federal protections to minorities

26

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Social Movement Victories

Immigration and Nationality Services Act – Removed racial and national barriers and opened immigration to black immigrants from Africa and the Western hemisphere

1968 Fair Housing Act – Ended discrimination in the sale and rental of housing

27

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Building Alternatives to the Matrix of Race and Politics

Political activism – Involves various types of actions that go beyond voting

May be as simple as writing blogs, posting on the internet, or getting involved in a letter writing campaign

28

Ex: A Day without Immigrants, February 13, 2017, staged in major cities across the country as a response to President Trump’s executive orders tightening immigration restriction

28

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Creating Change

Sanctuary cities

When undocumented immigrants arrested, they are not deported but must serve time associated with any crimes committed

29

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