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Coates_PPT07.pptx

Coates_PPT07.pptx

Crime, Law, and Deviance

Chapter 7

LO 7-1 Examine the history of race, crime, and deviance

LO 7-2 Analyze stock theories of race, crime, and deviance

LO 7-3 Apply the matrix lens to the relationships among race, crime, and deviance

LO 7-4 Formulate transformative narratives of crime and deviance

2

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

A History of Race, Crime, and Punishment

Deviance – All actions or behaviors that defy social norms

Seriousness ranges from criminal activity to violating social expectations

Example: violating fashion “rules” vs. stealing

Deviance defines a significant portion of our national character

3

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Building a Foundation of Whiteness

English colonists arrived in America with notions of race and gender bias

All women typically received harsher punishments than their male counterparts for violating sexual or marriage taboos

White privilege – Refers to the laws, practices, and behaviors which preserve and (re)create societal benefits people indentified as white

White normative structures – Those norms and institutions that obscure the racial intent of such laws

4

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Legislating White Privilege

Racial consciousness – The awareness of race shared by members of a group and wider society

Colonial laws linked white racial consciousness to laws

Example: U.S. Naturalization Law of 1790

Slave Codes

Jim Crow Laws (1880s–1960s)

5

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

A Legacy of Racial Profiling

Racial profiling – Use of law enforcement to target people of color for extensive and invasive policing, often with no evidence of criminal activity

People of color are most likely to be profiled, imprisoned, and sentenced

6

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Sociological Stock Theories of Crime and Deviance

Fall into two broad categories

Biosocial theories of deviance

Ecological perspectives

7

These standard stories have a common thread- they place the source of deviance at the micro, or personal, level. Therefore, either the individual, their community, culture, or environment are at odds with societal norms. And by implication if the individual, their community, culture or environment could just be reformed, fixed, adjusted or rehabilitated, then the deviance would be reduced or non-existent.

7

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Biosocial Theories of Deviance

Cesare Lombroso – Founder of modern criminology, 19th century

Believed biological indicators were associated with more primitive form of human being

Suggested that Africans, Asians, and Native Americans were especially prone to crime and deviance

Biological determinism – Holds that behavior is innately impacted by some component of a person’s physiology

8

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Ecological Perspectives on Crime

Ecological approach – Situates human behavior within the social structure external to the individual

Four derivatives of the ecological approach

Social disorganization

Culture of poverty

Cultural conflict

Broken windows

9

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Social Disorganization

Social disorganization links crime to neighborhood ecological patterns

Example: communities with large levels of immigration or migration produce rapid community changes that may lead to disruption

10

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Culture of Poverty

Culture of poverty approach – Poverty seen as a set of choices

Linked to unwed mothers who were blamed for perpetuating crime and deviance

Differential association theory – Differences in criminal involvement among groups resulted from their different definitions of criminality

11

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Broken Windows Theory

Broken windows theory – Argues that a significant way of decreasing crime was to halt vandalism

While fixing broken windows may increase community pride, researchers have not found that it sufficiently explains lower levels of crime and deviance

12

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

The Spaces and Places of Crime and Deviance

General strain theory – Racism produces stressful events and environments.

Leads to negative emotions, which leads to criminal activity

Systemic racism – Occurs when a system of inequality based upon race, often within institutional settings, is often associated with differential outcomes in crime and deviance

13

These negative emotions may be buffered by factors such as coping mechanisms, family and peer support, as well as self-esteem

13

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

The Structure and Context of Crime and Deviance

Prison-industrial complex – Policies that target and greatly expand the U.S. inmate population

“Get tough on crime”

“War on Drugs”

14

New interpretations of structural inequalities argue that racism, differential education funding, and a lack of opportunities may lead to a culture of poverty

14

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

The Structure and Context of Crime and Deviance

People of color are more likely than whites to be incarcerated

Girlfriend theory – Suggests that women are minor players caught up in criminal actions of their boyfriends

Black women are twice as likely to be incarcerated than their white counterparts

15

Homicide is the leading cause of death for black males between the ages of 15-24 and the second leading cause of Hispanic males in the age group

15

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

The Structure and Context of Crime and Deviance

United States is the only industrialized western democracy that still sanctions the death penalty

Currently, 54% of those on death row are either black or Latino

Black men are eight times more likely to be homicide victims or offenders than their white counterparts

16

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Identifying Types of Crime

Differential labeling – Some individuals and groups are systematically declared deviant by virtue of being in that particular group

17

Example: in the U.S., it is believed that blacks, Hispanics and other disadvantaged groups are more prone to crime, violence, disorder, welfare and likely to live in undesirable communities

17

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Identifying Types of Crime

Hate crimes – Use of violence and intimidation to further stigmatize and marginalize disenfranchised people

In 2014 the FBI reported a total of 5,479 hate crimes across the country

63% of these were against people; remaining target property

LGBT people of color are more likely to be victimized than their white counterparts

18

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Violence Against Women

Most common type of violent crime on college campuses is the rape of women

One in 1 in 5 women and 1 in 71 men will be raped at some point in their lives

Poverty is correlated with rape victimization

19

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

White Collar Crime

White collar crime is “crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his or her occupation”

Bernie Madoff stole $64.8 billion from investors

More examples include corporations such as Rite Aide, K-Mart, Xerox, and Tyco

20

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Transforming the Narrative of Race, Crime, and Deviance

In 2016 alone, 24,000 inmates in 12 states and 29 prisons held protests

Resistance – Conscious and unconscious attempt by individuals and groups to challenge the dominant values of society

21

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Scientific Advances

Scientific advances have aided current and past criminal investigations

Innocence Project has tracked 344 convictions have been overturned by new DNA evidence in 17 years

Of these, 215 were African American, 105 were white, 25 were Latinos and 2 were Asian Americans

22

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Alternatives to Incarceration

In 2010, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that sentencing juveniles in homicide cases to life without parole was both cruel and unusual

Community service

Clemency for non-violent drug offenses

23

Coates, The Matrix of Race

SAGE Publishing, 2018.

Emphasizing Choice

Individual agency – For some people there is a “poverty of opportunities”

The prevalence of one type of crime is determined by the resources available within a particular community

This directly impacts the kind of choices that people make

24

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