Select Page
Your Perfect Assignment is Just a Click Away
We Write Custom Academic Papers

100% Original, Plagiarism Free, Customized to your instructions!






College Physics

Chapter # Chapter Title

PowerPoint Image Slideshow

Throughout the world, the gap between those who are rich and those who are poor is widening.

Of the 7.3 billion people on the planet, 2.4 billion are so poor that they must subsist on the equivalent of two dollars a day or less.

There are a record-breaking 2,089 billionaires and 17 million millionaires, but there are hundreds of millions of homeless people.

The increase in world poverty also contributes to environmental degradation and political instability and violence, which drain resources that might be used to meet a nation’s domestic needs.

Economic Inequality in the United States

Social stratification is a society’s system of ranking categories of people in a hierarchy.

Stratification produces social classes, categories of people who have similar access to resources and opportunities.

In early societies, people shared a common social standing. As societies evolved and became more complex, they began to elevate some members. Today, stratification, a system by which society ranks its members in a hierarchy, is the norm throughout the world. All societies stratify their members. A stratified society is one in which there is an unequal distribution of society’s rewards and in which people are arranged hierarchically into layers according to how much of society’s rewards they possess. To understand stratification, we must first understand its origins.


Hunting and Gathering Societies

Hunting and gathering societies had little stratification. Men hunted for meat while women gathered edible plants, and the general welfare of the society depended on all its members sharing what it had. The society as a whole undertook the rearing and socialization of children and shared food and other acquisitions more or less equally. Therefore, no group emerged as better off than the others.

Horticultural, Pastoral, and Agricultural Societies

The emergence of horticultural and pastoral societies led to social inequality. For the first time, groups had reliable sources of food: horticultural societies cultivated plants, while pastoral societies domesticated and bred animals. Societies grew larger, and not all members needed to be involved in the production of food. Pastoral societies began to produce more food than was needed for mere survival, which meant that people could choose to do things other than hunt for or grow food.

Division of Labor and Job Specialization

Division of labor in agricultural societies led to job specialization and stratification. People began to value certain jobs more highly than others. The further someone was from actual agriculture work, the more highly he or she was respected. Manual laborers became the least respected members of society, while those engaged in “high culture,” such as art or music, became the most respected.

As basic survival needs were met, people began trading goods and services they could not provide for themselves and began accumulating possessions. Some accumulated more than others and gained prestige in society as a result. For some people, accumulating possessions became their primary goal. These individuals passed on what they had to future generations, concentrating wealth into the hands of a few groups.

Industrialized Societies

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the mid-1700s, when the steam engine came into use as a means of running other machines. The rise of industrialization led to increased social stratification. Factory owners hired workers who had migrated from rural areas in search of jobs and a better life. The owners exploited the workers to become wealthy, making them work long hours in unsafe conditions for very low wages. The gap between the “haves” and the “have-nots” widened.

The Improvement of Working Conditions

By the middle of the 1900s, workers had begun to secure rights for themselves, and the workplace became safer. Wages rose, and workers had something they had never had before: buying power. They could purchase homes, automobiles, and a vast array of consumer goods. Though their financial success was nothing compared to that of their bosses, the gap between the two was narrowing, and the middle class grew stronger.

At the same time, new forms of inequality took hold. The increasing sophistication and efficiency of factory machines led to the need for a different kind of worker—one who could not only operate certain kinds of equipment but could also read and write. The classification of the skilled worker was born. A skilled worker is literate and has experience and expertise in specific areas of production, or on specific kinds of machines. In contrast, many unskilled workers could neither read nor write English and had no specific training or expertise. The division arose between skilled and unskilled workers, with the former receiving higher wages and, as some would say, greater job security.

Postindustrial Societies

The rise of postindustrial societies, in which technology supports an information-based economy, has created further social stratification. Fewer people work in factories, while more work in service industries. Education has become a more significant determinant of social position. The Information Revolution has also increased global stratification. Even though new technology allows for a more global economy, it also separates more clearly those nations who have access to the new technology from those who don’t.


What is Social Stratification?

Refers to a society’s categorization of its people into rankings of socioeconomic tiers based on factors like wealth, income, race, education, and power.

Stratification is not about Wealth (net value of money and assets a person has) and income (person’s wages or investment dividends) usually determine strata in the US.


Slavery, Caste System and Class system

Slavery’s Global History

Many Americans view slavery as a phenomenon that began with the colonization of the New World and ended with the Civil War, but slavery has existed for a very long time. Slavery appears in the Old Testament of the Bible, as well as in the Qur’an. It was common practice in ancient Greece and Rome.

The Causes of Slavery

A common assumption about slavery is that it is generally based on racism. Though racism was the primary cause of slavery in the United States, it was not the main reason that people in other areas were enslaved. Reasons for slavery include debt, crime, war, and beliefs of inherent superiority.

Debt: Individuals who could not pay their way out of debt sometimes had to literally sell themselves. If a slave’s debt was not paid off before his or her death, the debt was often passed down to his or her children, enslaving several generations of the same family.

Crime: Families against whom a crime had been committed might enslave members of the perpetrator’s family as compensation.

Prisoners of war: Slaves were often taken during wartime, or when a new territory was being invaded. When Rome was colonizing much of the known world approximately 2,000 years ago, it routinely took slaves from the lands it conquered.

Beliefs of inherent superiority: Some people believe that they have a right to enslave those who they believe are inherently inferior to them.

Slavery in the United States

Slavery in the United States was unique for several reasons. First, it had a fairly equal male-to-female ratio. Slaves also lived longer than in other regions. They often reproduced, and their children were born into slavery. In other countries, slavery was not permanent or hereditary. Once slaves paid off their debts, they were set free. In the United States, slaves were rarely freed before the Civil War.

Slavery Today

Slavery still exists today. As many as 400 million people live under conditions that qualify as slavery, despite laws prohibiting it. In the Sudan, Ghana, and Benin, slavery exists much as it did 800 years ago. In other parts of the world, including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan, debt slavery is common. Sex slavery, the forcing of girls into prostitution, is prevalent in Asia.


Modern Day Slavery

Modern Day Slavery

Systems of Stratification

Open system: are based on achievement and allow movement between different strata.

Class system: based on social factors and individual achievement.

Class: people who share similar status with regard to factors like wealth, income, education, and occupation.

Meritocracy: where personal effort determines social standing

Social Mobility

Social mobility refers to the ability to change positions within a social stratification system.

Upward mobility-Downward mobility

Intergenerational mobility explains a difference in social class between different generations of a family.

Intragenerational mobility describes a difference in social class between different members of the same generation.

Structural mobility happens when societal changes enable a whole group of people to move up or down the social class ladder.

Types of Poverty

Relative poverty is a state of living where people can afford necessities but are unable to meet their society’s average standard of living.

Subjective poverty describes poverty that is composed of many dimensions;

it is subjectively present when your actual income does not meet your expectations and perceptions.

absolute poverty lack even the basic necessities, which typically include adequate food, clean water, safe housing, and access to health care.

Close to 3 billion people live on less than $2.50 a day

Relative poverty: focuses on the idea that people are poor relative to some standard, and that standard is partially shaped by the lifestyles of other citizens

Episodic poverty: poor for at least two consecutive months in some time period.

Absolute poverty: establishes a fixed economic level below which people are considered poor, and this level does not necessarily change as society on the whole becomes more or less affluent.

A Global View of Poverty

In nations such as Ethiopia, Liberia, and Somalia, well over 50 percent of the people live in such severe poverty.

Few, if any, of the poor in the United States experience such severe poverty.

Trends of the past century have produced higher levels of inequality in the United States while the trend in Britain has been toward reducing levels of inequality.


How much economic inequality is there in the United States today?

This is 13 times as much as the 3.8% earned by the poorest one-fifth of families.

Distribution of Income in the United States


How much economic inequality is there in the United States today?

Note that wealth is distributed much more unequally than income: 60% of families have less than 2% of all wealth.

Distribution of Wealth in the United States

Why Does Poverty Persist?

6.6: Analyze the individualistic, structural, and cultural explanations for poverty.

Many theories are offered to explain the nature of poverty and account for why so many people are impoverished in the U.S.:

Individualistic explanations

Structural explanations

Cultural explanations

Individualistic Explanations: poverty is primarily the result of laziness or lack of motivation, and those who are poor generally have only themselves to blame.

Individualistic explanations are popular in America because there is great ambivalence toward those who are poor.


Structural explanations: attribute poverty to the functioning of the dominant institutions of society, such as markets and corporations.

assumes that poverty is a result of economic or social imbalances within the social structure that restrict opportunities for some individuals (e.g., a changing economy, a drive for profit inherent in capitalism, racism, sexism, an eroding safety net).

Cultural explanations: people become adapted to certain ways of life because of the way they were raised, including adapting to poverty.

a “culture of poverty” arises among poor people, with new norms, values, and aspirations.

The idea that there is a culture of poverty that arises among chronically poor individuals and families is controversial.


Class Traits and Fashion

Class traits: also called class markers, are the typical behaviors, customs, and norms that define each class.

Georg Simmel: Duality of differentiation and conformity/imitation

Fashion is a custom followed transiently.

It is a social phenomenon that occurs in almost all ages, races, social classes and societies.

Trends in clothing, music, cars and accessories.

Fashion As Imitation

“Fashion is an imitation of a given model”

Imitation provides the individual the security of not being alone in their performance.

The fusion of the individual and community.

Fashions die out when they become practiced by more and more people.

Symbolic Interactionism: In most communities, people interact primarily with others who share the same social standing; note that people’s appearance reflects their perceived social standing

Conspicuous consumption refers to buying certain products to make a social statement about status

Simmel: “En Vogue” is in large measure a consequence of higher classes attempting to distance themselves from the lower classes.

Fashion is a visible and easily identifiable sign of class position.

As lower classes seek to imitate higher classes, the upper classes seek new ways to retain and express their distinctiveness.

Modern society: mass production, access to wealth (purchasing power), cheaper products

Paradox: as we try to be unique in our fashion choices, we turn to buying mass-produced, standardized goods.


“Tragedy of Culture”

A social constraint in which the ‘objective culture’ (material items we create) comes to dominate ‘subjective culture’ (self-development, interactions and individual will).

Compromises self-development and individuality by increasing conformity.

Cell Phone





High price of Materialism (click for video)

Simmel described blasé attitude as an attitude of absolute boredom and lack of concern.  He goes on and states that we have limited emotional resources and are only able to give/care so much. Simmel explains it as a multiple stimuli and at the final step we withdraw emotionally. After reading this article, I could see the relations it has with blasé attitude and the bystander effect. Simmel talks about how we withdraw emotionally due to changes in knowledge, culture and how we are faced with diverse people and circumstances. 


The Poverty Line

Poverty line: income level set by the government for the purpose of counting the poor

Roughly 3x what a family needs to eat a basic, nutritious diet.

The Consequences of Poverty

More than any other social class, the poor suffer from short life expectancies and health problems, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and mental illness. Reasons include the following:

Poor people are often not well educated about diet and exercise. They are more likely than people in higher social strata to be overweight and suffer from nutritional deficits.

They are less likely to have health insurance, so they put off going to the doctor until a problem seems like a matter of life and death. At that time they must find a public health facility that accepts patients with little or no insurance.

Living in poverty brings chronic stress. Poor people live every day with the uncertainty of whether they can afford to eat, pay the electric bill, or make the rent payment. Members of the middle class also have stress but have more options for addressing it.

Poor people usually do not have jobs that offer them vacation time to let them relax.

High levels of unresolved stress, financial problems, and poor health can wreak havoc within a relationship. Poor people report more relationship problems than do people in other classes and have higher rates of divorce and desertion. The children of such families are more likely than their middle-class counterparts to grow up in broken homes or in single-parent, female-headed households.

The Culture of Poverty

Anthropologist Oscar Lewis coined the term culture of poverty, which means that poor people do not learn the norms and values that can help them improve their circumstances; hence, they become trapped in a repeated pattern of poverty. Because many poor people live in a narrow world in which all they see is poverty and desperation, they never acquire the skills or the ambition that could help them rise above the poverty level. Since culture is passed down from one generation to the next, parents teach their children to accept their circumstances rather than to work to change them. The cycle of poverty then becomes self-perpetuating.

Though the stratification system of the United States is based on class rather than on caste, some people claim that a racial caste system exists in this country. Slavery was outlawed after the Civil War, but some believe it was replaced by another prejudicial system—a caste system based on race. Though whites could no longer own slaves, they still considered themselves to be superior to people of African descent. They insisted on separate recreational, educational, and other facilities for themselves and their families and even prevented intermarriage between people of different races. Before this time, one’s race was a strong indicator of destiny, and some would say that there is still a racial caste system in the United States today


In 2012, there were 46.5 million people in poverty, for a poverty rate of 15%

The Poverty Rate

The Poverty Rate in the United States,


The Poor: Who is at greatest risk?

Race: African Americans and Hispanics

Age: children

Gender: women

Family Patterns: single mothers

Region: the South and the West

Social Circumstances

The Working Poor

Despite common misconceptions, many adults below the official poverty line actually work for a living, often at low-paying or part-time work.

The Unemployed

The unemployed receive unemployment benefits for a time, but these are exhausted eventually.

Poor health, lack of skills, lack of jobs, lack of child care

Gender inequalities of this social phenomenon

Family composition: dissolution of marital unions, constitutions of families without these unions, higher male mortality

Family organization

Gender division of labor and consumption within the household, gender roles regulating the control over household resources

Inequality in the access to public services or in their quality

Barriers to education of girls, educational segregation by sex, lack of women specific health attention

Inequality in social protection

Contributory pensions systems reproducing previous labor market inequalities, lower access to pensions and social assistance by women, inequality in benefit concession or in benefit values in targeted policies

Labor market inequalities

Occupational segregation, intra-career mobility, differential levels of employment in paid work, wage discrimination, duration of work shifts.

Legal, paralegal and cultural constrains in public life

Property rights, discrimination in the judiciary system, constrains in community and political life, etc.


Problems Linked to Poverty

1 out of 30 children or 2.5 million children

58K homeless veterans

Texas, California and Florida have the highest numbers of unaccompanied homeless youth under 18 (lgbtq 20% to 40%)

Homelessness affects men more than women 70%

Causes of homelessness can be found in recent social trends, such as

the decline in the number of industrial jobs that pay a living wage,

the flight of jobs from the cities where people live,

the contraction of social welfare,

increases in poverty, and

the decline in the amount of low-cost housing.

Other Causes: affordable housing, deinstitutionalization, redevelopment, US dept of VA, nearly half of foster children in the US become homeless (aging out of system), natural disasters, ex-cons and those hiding from authorities, fleeing domestic violence, teenagers who flee home, evictions, lack of social capital

College youth: FAFSA 2013 58K identified as homeless


Poor health

Linked to a lack of good nutrition.

The infant mortality rate among the poor is twice the rate among affluent people.

Death comes earlier to the poor; more likely to die from infectious diseases and violence.

Substandard Housing

decline in availability of low-rent apartments

housing crisis starting in 2007


About 610,000 people are homeless on a given night

Up to 2.3 million people are homeless at some point during the year

Average monthly income for homeless families is $475

Problems Linked to Poverty

Limited schooling and education

Poor children are less likely than rich children to complete high school.

Poor counseling

Unresponsive administrators

Overcrowded classes

Irrelevant curricula


Dilapidated school facilities (click for video)

Several can be addressed with more funding

Some are stalemated by disagreements

The Rising Cost of Education

Fewer poor children enter college; they have less chance of completing an advanced degree.


One determinant of socioeconomic status is education. People with a high school degree are classified in one group. People with college degrees are put into another. Using educational attainment levels to indicate SES is problematic for two reasons:

School systems in this country are not uniform in quality.

Not everyone has equal access to primary, secondary, and higher education.

Free, compulsory education has existed in the United States since the beginning of the twentieth century, but some school systems are better than others. The American public education system tends to be highly decentralized, with decisions about what to include in the school curriculum being made at the state or local level. School systems differ widely in what they choose to teach and when.

Disparity of Resources Among Public Schools

Some school systems produce graduates who are prepared for higher education, while others turn out people whose basic math and language skills are so poor that they qualify for only a few types of jobs. The quality of the education a school provides depends largely on its budget, which in turn relies heavily on the tax base of the town or city in which it is located. Wealthy cities can afford better teachers, newer materials, and superior technology, whereas poor cities can barely afford basic supplies.

Poorer communities also tend to have a higher dropout rate than wealthier communities. Therefore, while establishing a profile of a typical high school graduate is difficult, the assumption remains, for the purposes of social classification, that all high school graduates are equally prepared for either the workplace or for higher education.

Disparity in Higher Education

The reliance on educational level as an indicator of social class becomes more problematic when one considers the huge variety of colleges in the United States. There are vocational schools, junior colleges, four-year colleges, and universities. Some colleges prepare individuals for specific careers, whereas others emphasize the development of intellectual and life skills. Religiously oriented colleges focus on development of the spirit and the teaching of theology as well as academic material. Some colleges encourage their students to pursue graduate degrees, whereas others assist middle-aged people in returning to college after long absences from the academic sphere.

Cost of Higher Education

As the quality of higher education varies, so does the cost of attending college. Even if our federal government completely subsidized the cost of a college education, as governments in some countries do, the financial circumstances of some individuals would preclude them from seeking higher education.


Problems Linked to Poverty

Crime and Punishment

A focus on “street crime” means the poor are more likely to face arrest, trial, conviction, and prison.

The poor depend more on public defenders and court-appointed attorneys.

Conviction of a crime increases difficulty of finding a good job.

Political Alienation

Voters in 2012: 54% of people earning less than $40,000; 80% of people earning at least $100,000

“The Metropolis and Mental Life”

The intensity of stimuli in the urban environment

its consequences for the psychology of the city dweller.

The metropolitan person is bombarded with sensory impressions that lead him to adopt, out of necessity, an intellectualized approach to life.

Void of emotional investment (click for video)

What does it mean to be a homeless?

•According to the National Health Care for the Homeless Council a homeless is an individual who lacks housing and any other resources to have a comfortable living.

•These individuals may live on the streets; stay in a shelter, mission, single room occupancy facilities, abandoned building or vehicle; or in any other unstable or non-permanent situation.

Why do people become homeless?

•Poverty #1

•Unable to affordable Housing

•Health problems

•Substance Abuse

•Domestic violence


•Mentally Ill

Misconceptions about homeless population

#1. Homelessness is a choice

#2. They are all lazy

#3. All homeless are addicts

#4. Homeless people are dangerous

#5. Homelessness will never happen to me

Homeless Women

Feminist Standpoint Theory

Homeless women represent about 32% of the homeless population

Feminist Standpoint Theory is certain socio-political positions occupied by women that can become starting points for asking questions about not only those who are socially and politically marginalized but also those who, by making a dent in social and political privilege, occupy the positions of oppressors.

Application: by having a woman in a position of power when dealing with the needs of the homeless population a woman can take on the issues of the homeless more adequately because they can see the problem from the marginalized perspective

Shelter Options

Example: How shelters are geared toward men rather than women

Two options when it comes to shelters:

Shelters for women with children

Being lumped in with men

Being in a shelter surrounded by men isn’t an option for many women due to sexual assault or domestic violence

50% experienced violence in the last year

25% experienced violence at least 4 times in the last year


Intersectionality is the interconnected nature of social categories such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, it is regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.

Example: The income inequality that was supported by racist and sexist institutional arrangements can be associated with the increase of women being on the streets

Wadge Gap Chart

Health Needs

Meeting most basic Health needs is very challenging

At any given time approximately 10% of homeless women are pregnant a rate twice that of all us women

Lack of knowledge and access to contraception

Homeless women are almost three times more likely to have preterm delivery

Though there are services for homeless women who are pregnant many, do not access them for fear of losing newborn to CPS or they are uninformed about services that exist

Homeless Veterans

How many veterans in the United States are homeless?

Homeless veterans are widely reported to make up about 30 percent of the homeless adult population.

In 2016, about 39,471 homeless veterans were identified.

Within that population

Mostly males

African American

Many with a mental and/or physical disability

Why are Veterans Homeless?

Lack of support through family and friends and social networks

They do not have liable income and health care

Many suffer from mental illness, physical disabilities, and substance abuse

There’s not a lot of affordable housing

Homeless Youth

Homeless Youth

As we have seen, there is a diversity among the homeless population. Homeless youth are a portion of the population that often goes unnoticed.

Approximately 1.6 to 2 million youth, aged 12 to 24 years old, experience homelessness in the United States per year.

Homeless Youth and the Foster Care

Research shows that young adults who age out of foster care are have a high risk of becoming homeless.

Youth that were a part of the foster care system report maltreatment and/or abuse.

About 11%-46% of maltreated youth who age out of the foster care system end up homeless in their young adulthood.

LGBTQ Homeless Youth

LGBTQ youth are overrepresented in the young homeless population.

Studies demonstrate that LGBTQ youth make up 20%-40% of the homeless youth population.

Housing insecurity is a major barrier to leaving Domestic Violence

Forces abused women to live in inadequate conditions

Forces victims to return to their abusers

Reasons for Substance Abuse within Homeless Community

Mental Health Issues

Depression, anxiety, PTSD

Family History & Genetics


Isolation, stress from societal pressure, sudden tragic life event

Resources for Homeless with Substance Addiction

Not many resources provided for substance abuse users within the homeless community

Growing number of resources such as Needle Exchange Programs

Resources often require a lot of money which the homeless cannot afford

Sociological Theory Application

Weber’s Theory on Class, Status and Power

Application: Weber’s theory can be applied to substance abuse within the homeless community due to the correlation and intersection of class, status, and power. Homelessness and substance abuse are connected due to people not having the privilege to afford resources to help with their substance abuse due to belonging to a lower class. Not enough resources are also provided to them based on the sole fact they are of lower status and do not have power within society. Those of lower class are more likely to become homeless due to lack of resources and financial struggles.

Sociological Theory Application

Durkheim’s Theory on Anomie

Application: The use of drugs within the homeless community can be looked at as occurring as a reaction against the social controls of society such as social norms and regulations. Some people, such as homeless, feel extreme societal pressure to conform, perform, and follow social norms that they might abuse drugs as a way of rebelling against society’s expectations.

Homelessness in LA County

Homelessness in LA County

Systems of Stratification

Closed Systems: accommodate little change in social position.

Caste Systems: people are born into their social standing and remain in it their whole lives.

The Dalits

Impact on women

Caste System

A caste system is a social system based on ascribed statuses, which are traits or characteristics that people possess as a result of their birth. Ascribed statuses can include race, gender, nationality, body type, and age. A caste system ranks people rigidly. No matter what a person does, he or she cannot change castes.

People often try to compensate for ascribed statuses by changing their nationality, lying about their age, or undergoing plastic surgery to alter their body type. In some societies, this strategy works; in others, it does not.

Example: Religion is an ascribed status in some societies. Americans may convert to other religions, but in other countries, people may not change out of the particular religion into which they were born.

India’s Caste System

The Indian government officially outlawed the caste system in 1949, but vestiges of it remain today. The system originated with the Hindu religion, which subscribes to the concept of reincarnation, the belief that while the physical body dies, the soul of a person is immortal and goes on to be reborn into another body. People who are good in their current life will come back to improved circumstances in the next life, but if they are evil, they will be punished in the next one. Therefore, those who are poor or ill are suffering punishment for having done something wrong in a past life. One should not interfere in the life of another person because that individual’s circumstances are the result of what he or she has done in a previous incarnation.

Some might view reincarnation as religious tradition. Others might view it as ideology, a set of values that people devise to rationalize a particular social custom. In the case of the caste system, the custom being rationalized is inequality. If an individual is poor, for example, blaming his or her circumstances on what he or she did in a past life absolves others in the society of the responsibility for providing any assistance. Ideology also attempts to explain why some are in positions of wealth and power. Hindu tradition would say that the wealthy and powerful are being rewarded for what they did in a past life, and therefore they deserve every privilege they have.

The Five Castes

The Indian caste system has existed for about 3,000 years. There were four original castes, and one caste so low that it was not even considered to be part of the caste system:

The Brahmin/Brahman caste usually consisted of priests or scholars and enjoyed a great deal of prestige and wealth.

The Kshatriya caste, or warrior caste, was composed of those who distinguished themselves in military service.

The Vaishva/vaisyas caste comprised two sets of people—business-people and skilled craftspeople.

The Shudra caste consisted of those who made their living doing manual labor.

The Harijan, Dalit, or Untouchable caste was thought to comprise only inferior people who were so repulsive that an individual who accidentally touched one would have to engage in extensive ritual ablutions to rid himself or herself of the contamination.

There is no social movement in a caste system. An individual born into the Harijan caste cannot change his or her fate. Nor can someone be demoted to a lower caste; the caste into which a person is born is the caste he or she will have for life.

Castes and Work

Caste dictates the type of work an individual is allowed to do. Members of the Shudra caste, for example, are relegated to performing hard physical work regardless of their skill, intelligence, or ambition. Those born into the Brahman caste must attend university or become a member of the clergy, even though they may show no interest or aptitude toward that end.

Castes and Marriage

In a true caste system, societies practice endogamy, or marriage within one’s own group or caste, with marriage between castes strictly forbidden. Traditionally, love is not used as a basis for marriage in a caste system. Rather, parents arrange marriages, sometimes when the future bride and groom are still children. The Indian concept of marriage is that while love is wonderful, it is neither a necessary nor desirable condition of marriage. If the couple is considered compatible in terms of major demographic variables, then the marriage is considered appropriate. Caste is one of the important variables, along with religion and educational level.

Modern India’s caste system has many more than the original five castes. Because the distinctions between these numerous castes have blurred over time, some people marry outside their caste. In general, however, caste is still considered an important determinant of whom one will marry. When people do marry outside of their caste, they are likely to marry someone whose caste is only a few levels away from their own.

Castes and Socializing

One’s caste also determines social contact. Friendships, and relationships in general, are rare among members of different castes. They neither live nor work near each other and rarely have any contact with one another.

South Africa’s Apartheid System

The apartheid system of South Africa is another example of a caste system. The term apartheid refers to the total separation of the races. White Europeans colonized South Africa starting in the seventeenth century, and the area remained part of the British Empire until its independence in 1961. The policy of apartheid, introduced in 1948, relegated black people to a caste far below that of whites. Black people could not vote, receive an education, or mix with whites in any way. The work of Nelson Mandela and others who fought for black equality have made apartheid illegal in South Africa, but, like the caste system in India, some prejudice and discrimination remain.


India used to have a rigid caste system. The people in the lowest caste suffered from extreme poverty and were shunned by society. Some aspects of India’s defunct caste system remain socially relevant. In this photo, an Indian woman of a specific Hindu caste works in construction, demolishing and building houses.

CA Minimum Wage

Currently California’s minimum wage is $13 per hour.

 This is $520 per week and $24,960 per year.

Is this too high or to low? Is this a living wage?

The minimum wage currently, projected, and historically.

9X 40=360


Federal minimum wage is $7.25


Living Wage

What’s a Living Wage?

A living wage is a decent wage so that a family can thrive safely and healthy.

Covers basic costs of living without need for government support or poverty programs.

Living Wage Calculator


Global Stratification and Inequality

Global stratification compares the wealth, economic stability, status, and power of countries across the world.

The poor in wealthy countries like the United States or Europe are much better off than the poor in less-industrialized countries such as Mali or India.

Models of global stratification rank countries according to their relative economic status, or gross national product (GNP)

Other systems consider 2 groups: more developed and less developed countries

Global Stratification and Inequality

Global classification defines countries based on the per capita gross domestic product (GDP), a country’s average national wealth per person.

Those in lower income countries:

Have little access to amenities (electricity, plumbing, and clean water).

Are not guaranteed education, and many are illiterate.

The life expectancy of citizens is lower than in high-income countries.

Structural Functional Analysis: Some Poverty is Inevitable

Social pathology theories

Focus on personal deficiency

Culture of poverty, patterns that encourage poverty as a way of life

U.S. as a meritocracy; social standing corresponds to personal ability and effort

Social disorganization theory

Breakdown in social order caused by rapid social change

Structural Functional Analysis: Some Poverty is Inevitable

Modern functional theory

Davis and Moore – inequality of rewards actually helps society function efficiently

the greater the functional importance of a social role, the greater must be the reward.

Social stratification is necessary to promote excellence, productivity, and efficiency, thus giving people something to strive for.

Herbert Gans – inequality is useful only to affluent people.

Trading Schools

Davis and Moore: The Functionalist Perspective

Sociologists Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore believed that stratification serves an important function in society. In any society, a number of tasks must be accomplished. Some tasks, such as cleaning streets or serving coffee in a restaurant, are relatively simple. Other tasks, such as performing brain surgery or designing skyscrapers, are complicated and require more intelligence and training than the simple tasks. Those who perform the difficult tasks are therefore entitled to more power, prestige, and money. Davis and Moore believed that an unequal distribution of society’s rewards is necessary to encourage people to take on the more complicated and important work that required many years of training. They believed that the rewards attached to a particular job reflect its importance to society.

Melvin Tumin

Sociologist Melvin Tumin took issue with Davis and Moore’s theory. He disagreed with their assumption that the relative importance of a particular job can always be measured by how much money or prestige is given to the people who performed those jobs. That assumption made identifying important jobs difficult. Were the jobs inherently important, or were they important because people received great rewards to perform them?

If society worked the way Davis and Moore had envisioned, Tumin argued, all societies would be meritocracies, systems of stratification in which positions are given according to individual merit. Ability would determine who goes to college and what jobs someone holds. Instead, Tumin found that gender and the income of an individual’s family were more important predictors than ability or what type of work an individual would do. Men are typically placed in a higher social stratification than women, regardless of ability. A family with more money can afford to send its children to college. As college graduates, these children are more likely to assume high-paying, prestigious jobs. Conversely, people born into poverty are more likely to drop out of school and work low-paying jobs in order to survive, thereby shutting them off from the kinds of positions that are associated with wealth, power, and prestige

Davis and Moore Thesis:

Some jobs are more important than other jobs. For example, the job of a brain surgeon is more important than the job of shoe shining.

Some jobs require more skills and knowledge than other jobs. To stay with our example, it takes more skills and knowledge to perform brain surgery than to shine shoes.

Relatively few people have the ability to acquire the skills and knowledge that are needed to do these important, highly skilled jobs. Most of us would be able to do a decent job of shining shoes, but very few of us would be able to become brain surgeons.

To encourage the people with the skills and knowledge to do the important, highly skilled jobs, society must promise them higher incomes or other rewards. If this is true, some people automatically end up higher in society’s ranking system than others, and stratification is thus necessary and inevitable.

Gans (1994) suggests that there are benefits to society from poverty

ensuring that society’s “dirty work” will be done

subsidizing many of the activities of the affluent

creating jobs for people who serve the poor

creating a market for inferior goods

using the poor as symbols of the “underdog”


Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification

Conflict: Stratification perpetuates inequality creating class conflict.

Marxist Theory: Poverty and Capitalism

Poverty involves more than money: Cultural Capital

The American Dream

Symbolic Interactionism: In most communities, people interact primarily with others who share the same social standing; note that people’s appearance reflects their perceived social standing

Conspicuous consumption refers to buying certain products to make a social statement about status

According to Pierre Bourdieu, cultural capital comes in three forms—embodied, objectified, and institutionalized. One’s accent or dialect is an example of embodied cultural capital, while a luxury car or record collection are examples of cultural capital in its objectified state. In its institutionalized form, cultural capital refers to credentials and qualifications such as degrees or titles that symbolize cultural competence and authority.

The Conflict Perspective

Marx viewed society as involving constant struggle between social classes over scarce resources.

The affluent are merely using the resources available to protect their own position.

Once people become successful they tend to pass on their success to their children and this makes it more difficult for people on the bottom to move up.


Feminist Analysis: Poverty and Patriarchy

Patriarchy: social pattern in which men dominate women

Feminization of Poverty: high risk of poverty for families headed by single mothers

Intersectionality Theory: Investigation of the interplay of race, class, and gender, often resulting in multiple dimensions of disadvantage

The Interactionist Perspective and Cultural Analysis

The cultural analysis of poverty focuses on the psychological orientations that may emerge among groups of people who live under conditions of poverty.

Some people who live in poverty develop a cultural orientation that helps them adapt to their life circumstances in a way that enables them to feel good.


Global Poverty

Explanations of global poverty parallel those of US poverty in their focus on individualistic versus structural problems.

Modernization Theory

Dependency Theory


Modernization theory

Wealthy nations became wealthy because early on they were able to develop the necessary beliefs, values, and practices for trade, industrialization, and rapid economic growth to occur. Poor nations remained poor because they failed to develop these beliefs, values, and practices; instead, they continued to follow traditional beliefs and practices that stymied industrial development and modernization.

Dependency theory

The poverty of poor nations stems from their colonization by European nations, which exploited the poor nations’ resources and either enslaved their populations or used them as cheap labor. The colonized nations were thus unable to develop a professional and business class that would have enabled them to enter the industrial age and to otherwise develop their economies.

How it Works

  1. Clіck оn the “Place оrder tab at the tоp menu оr “Order Nоw” іcоn at the bоttоm, and a new page wіll appear wіth an оrder fоrm tо be fіlled.
  2. Fіll іn yоur paper’s іnfоrmatіоn and clіck “PRІCE CALCULATІОN” at the bоttоm tо calculate yоur оrder prіce.
  3. Fіll іn yоur paper’s academіc level, deadlіne and the requіred number оf pages frоm the drоp-dоwn menus.
  4. Clіck “FІNAL STEP” tо enter yоur regіstratіоn detaіls and get an accоunt wіth us fоr recоrd keepіng.
  5. Clіck оn “PRОCEED TО CHECKОUT” at the bоttоm оf the page.
  6. Frоm there, the payment sectіоns wіll shоw, fоllоw the guіded payment prоcess, and yоur оrder wіll be avaіlable fоr оur wrіtіng team tо wоrk оn іt.

Nоte, оnce lоgged іntо yоur accоunt; yоu can clіck оn the “Pendіng” buttоn at the left sіdebar tо navіgate, make changes, make payments, add іnstructіоns оr uplоad fіles fоr the оrder created. e.g., оnce lоgged іn, clіck оn “Pendіng” and a “pay” оptіоn wіll appear оn the far rіght оf the оrder yоu created, clіck оn pay then clіck оn the “Checkоut” оptіоn at the next page that appears, and yоu wіll be able tо cоmplete the payment.

Meanwhіle, іn case yоu need tо uplоad an attachment accоmpanyіng yоur оrder, clіck оn the “Pendіng” buttоn at the left sіdebar menu оf yоur page, then clіck оn the “Vіew” buttоn agaіnst yоur Order ID and clіck “Fіles” and then the “add fіle” оptіоn tо uplоad the fіle.

Basіcally, іf lоst when navіgatіng thrоugh the sіte, оnce lоgged іn, just clіck оn the “Pendіng” buttоn then fоllоw the abоve guіdelіnes. оtherwіse, cоntact suppоrt thrоugh оur chat at the bоttоm rіght cоrner


Payment Prоcess

By clіckіng ‘PRОCEED TО CHECKОUT’ yоu wіll be lоgged іn tо yоur accоunt autоmatіcally where yоu can vіew yоur оrder detaіls. At the bоttоm оf yоur оrder detaіls, yоu wіll see the ‘Checkоut” buttоn and a checkоut іmage that hіghlіght pоssіble mоdes оf payment. Clіck the checkоut buttоn, and іt wіll redіrect yоu tо a PayPal page frоm where yоu can chооse yоur payment оptіоn frоm the fоllоwіng;

  1. Pay wіth my PayPal accоunt‘– select thіs оptіоn іf yоu have a PayPal accоunt.
  2. Pay wіth a debіt оr credіt card’ or ‘Guest Checkout’ – select thіs оptіоn tо pay usіng yоur debіt оr credіt card іf yоu dоn’t have a PayPal accоunt.
  3. Dо nоt fоrget tо make payment sо that the оrder can be vіsіble tо оur experts/tutоrs/wrіters.


Custоmer Suppоrt

Order Solution Now